What is arthritis? | Muscular-skeletal diseases | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy

What is arthritis? | Muscular-skeletal diseases | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy

– [Voiceover] Arthritis
is a term that we hear all the time, right, but
to break down this word, arthritis, -itis means inflammation. Everywhere in medicine it’s gonna refer to inflammation, and whatever before it is telling us where the inflammation is. In this case, arthr-
is referring to joints. Now we have joints in
our body that don’t move, kind of like pieces of our
skull that come together. Those are not meant to move, and it’s just holding our head together, but the joints that we’re thinking of and the joints that we’re gonna talk about are the joints that do move. Your knees, your elbows,
so on and so forth. In those joints, the
rough structure, pattern, is always gonna have the end of one bone and then another bone
with a space in between that is enclosed by a joint capsule, and it’s lined with
synovium, or synovial lining, which produces a fluid that we call synovial fluid to lubricate, and on the surface of these
bones we have cartilage. So that’s gonna be the rough structure, and I’ll draw this in
much better detail later. Any kind of joint inflammation
qualifies as arthritis, and there’s actually a
lot of different kinds. So if we ask ourselves,
“What is arthritis,” I wanna go through some
of the big categories of things that qualify as arthritis, and the kinds of people that
are likely to get each kind. But the first category is probably the most common category, and that’s gonna be arthritis
from overuse of the joint. This is probably what your
grandma is talking about when she’s saying, “My knee hurts. “I have arthritis.” And the thing is, you and I
will probably get this kind of arthritis too if we’re
lucky to live long enough. So the groups of people
that are most likely to get this kind are
those who are elderly, because they’ve lived longer and have used their joints longer, and also people who are
obese and overweight, because the extra weight they’re carrying just weighs down their joints. So obesity is correlated
with more overuse, or osteoarthritis. Speaking of which, osteoarthritis
is the poster child for overuse arthritis,
osteo- meaning bone. Arthritis. I’m not gonna write this out every time, so from now on I’m probably
gonna refer to it as OA. Lots and lots of people get this, usually in the weightbearing
parts of their body or whatever is overused the most. For example, a typist might get this in her fingers or wrists. A dancer might get it in her knees. This is due to rubbing
away of the cartilage and general wear and tear on the joint. We’ll go into the specific
pathophysiology later. The second big category, and it really qualifies as a big category, because it includes a lot
of different diseases, this one’s gonna be autoimmune. So auto- means self,
and immune is referring to our immune system, which is usually the system that helps us fight off invasion from the environment. So essentially the body
is attacking itself, and some of the famous
diseases in this category you might have heard of. They include lupus, Crohn’s disease, and they’re often systemic, means they reach a lot of
different parts of the body. The population, if we had to bet on the biggest population
to have these diseases would be females, usually
middle-aged females, but for now we’re just gonna say females. Of course guys get them too, but if we’re going with our odds, it’s more common in female patients. So autoimmune arthritis. At the top of this list has
to be rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatoid. Aside from OA, this is
the other huge category of people with arthritis. Rheumatoid arthritis. And even though it’s
very different from OA, they’re often contrasted
against each other because these are the most common kinds, so when we’re diagnosing,
we always wanna see if they’re leaning towards OA or RA. So compared to OA, the patients on average might be younger, but
of course elderly people get RA as well, but as you will see later, the symptoms look very different. There’s a whole branch of
medicine called rheumatology that deal with rheumatoid problems, so that kinda suggests
how widespread it is. The thing is, rheumatoid
arthritis has a unique thing we can isolate from testing
the patients’ blood. It’s called rheumatoid factor. I’m gonna write RF. Rheumatoid factor is
something you can test for, and it pushes you towards a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. Now I’m mentioning this because
the rest of the diseases that went on the list in
the autoimmune section are collectively referred to
as a seronegative arthritis. This is referring to the
fact that in their serum, they don’t have rheumatoid factor. So this whole category
is there to separate rheumatoid arthritis from the other autoimmune arthritises. Arthritises, I don’t
know if that’s a word, but that’s what we’re gonna call it. So seronegative is the
first part of the word. The other half of the
category refers to the fact that these diseases
often involve the spine, not just the joints in our
limbs that we think of. So spondylo- refers to the spine, so spondyloarthritis. The name here tells you a lot. It tells you that it’s
not gonna be RF positive, and it’s gonna involve the spine. So we have ankylosing spondyloarthritis. Ankylosing means a
fusion, fusing together, which is a common symptom in a lot of different types of arthritis, but here it’s part of the name. Ankylosing spondyloarthritis. Such long words. Spondyloarthritis. I’ll probably refer to this as AS. Everything’s about acronyms in medicine. And then we have Reiter’s syndrome, named after the person
who found the disease, Reiter’s syndrome. Then we’re gonna have psoriatic arthritis, psoriatic, which is part of psoriasis, one of the autoimmune systemic diseases. But it also causes
inflammation of the joints, so psoriatic arthritis
is its own category. With the seronegative spondyloarthritis, one buzzword I want you to remember is called HLA-B27, I’m sorry, not seven. For those of you taking tests,
this counts as a buzzword. Every time you see it,
think of the seronegative spondyloarthritis diseases. This is an antigen, surface
antigen on an immune cell. So all that means is if we
have a white blood cell, HLA-B27 is an antigen
that can attach to it, and it’s something that these
diseases have in common. We don’t have to go too
far into immunology here, but just remember,
cement these four letters and two numbers into your head, HLA-B27, and think of autoimmune
seronegative spondyloarthritis. All right, moving on. The next category is gonna
be nice and straightforward. It’s gonna be infectious. Even though usually the joints should be nice and closed off to
the outside environment, sometimes an infection gets through, and this can give us arthritis, so the most dangerous kind
is gonna be septic arthritis. So sepsis refers to an infection that’s leaked into the blood. So septic arthritis, this
person’s gonna have fevers and systemic symptoms, but the original problem’s gonna be able to be traced to a joint. And the people that are
most likely to get this are young males. Think of college-aged
kids, maybe slightly older. Some of the bacteria responsible include gonorrhea, chlamydia,
which are the big ones. Also bacteria that live on the skin. So think of infection if the
arthritis came on suddenly, it’s pretty severe, and we’re
seeing systemic symptoms. Speaking of which, I
wonder if Reiter’s syndrome also fits in the infectious,
because it’s associated sometimes with certain viral infections, and it can develop as an
aftermath of that infection. But I guess it belongs better up here, because it’s not an active infection. But as we get to Reiter’s syndrome later, we’ll talk about that in more detail. So far we’re talked about
overuse of the joint, of things inside the body, the immune system attacking the joint, outside things attacking the joint, and the last category we’re gonna have is gonna be things depositing in the joint that really don’t belong there. Don’t really know what to call this. Let’s call it depository,
if that makes sense. Depository. So there’s not really
anything attacking it per se, but the joint should
be a clean, pure place, and particles that deposit there can cause a lot of inflammation and pain, and you probably already know
where I’m going with this. It’s gonna be gout and pseudogout. We think of these usually are
isolated to certain joints in the body, and they
almost always occur there, but of course they can
occur in other places too, and it counts as arthritis because it’s an inflammation of a joint, and they both come from
depositing certain proteins in the joint space. So these four big categories round out the big things that we
refer to as arthritis. All these diseases are so different, so the next time you hear arthritis, remember that’s not the
stereotypical knee pain that we’re thinking of. So really pay attention to the symptoms that distinguish these different kinds of arthritis from each other.


  • Jama Sahal says:

    Amazing. Thaaaaaaaank you so much. I really got no words to describe how awesome teacher you are and how clear and concise you explained. Thank you.

  • Amar K says:

    I agree with the commwnt below : your awesomeness is unmatched !

    Could please go a tiny bit more into details like in the kaplan books please.

  • shygirlnow2011 says:

    I really appreciate your notetaking. I am terrible at discerning info so this is very helpful including the drawing. But, tell me where does fibromyalgia fit into this? I saw a Rheumatologist for it. So, is it an accepted form of autoimmune arthritis in medicine? Please explain.

  • Johara H. says:

    I love your voice and love the way your simplifying it, THANK YOU SO MUCH!

  • Emy Wise says:

    can you explain gout disease ..and thanx for the good materials.

  • Robert PLG says:

    I'm not sure but ,if anyone else trying to find out pain medication for arthritis try Magonsi Home Joints Expert (should be on google have a look ) ? Ive heard some incredible things about it and my mate got excellent results with it.

  • jeffery belmont says:

    🙂 On the 8th day now. Body feels calm and relax. My pain markers down from 8 to 6. I think my case will a bit longer for I have been in heavy drugs for a while now. I’m happy with the progress so far. Feeling healthier is the best way.
    go here ==> https://t.co/qVKJJH8npt?=banisharthritis

  • Drum Wright says:

    This arthritis treatment “Rοngοdο Ruzο” (Google it) is wonderful. When you are my age, you`ve had your share of injuries from your life experiences, like I have arthritis on the neck due to a car accident, center back from slipping & falling, lower back from falling into a well, and more. My hands and feet haven`t felts better ever since I had this condition. When I hear my loved ones as well as close friends state they are experiences pain and joint aches, I usually suggest this treatment solution.

  • Yahya Minsif says:

    For RA, RF is not specific and I do believe that the Anti–citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) is more of an indicative for such disease and hence more widely searched for in serology. I would love to hear your comment about this.

  • SneakyFlare Gaming says:

    Sad u have to make Fake accounts to comment

  • Michael Reyes says:

    Go here now if you want the best treatment for arthritis: HootRelief.xyz

  • Mikael Vitaly Vyacheslav says:

    This guy is a professinal scammer , big mouth charlaton ……………..

    Arthritis is caused by a bacteria ! called Chlamydia Pneumoniae is a very common bacterium, estimated to infect 40-70% of the population .Chlamydia Pneumoniae ; here is a website where you get information http://www.cpnhelp.org/ .You can cure arthritis , lupus ,msm with antibiotics ; tetracycline, clarithromycin, doxycycline 3 to 4 different antibiotics it takes about six months taking these antibiotics to cure arthritis , But…but no Doctor in the U.S. will do it ! only in Mexico in private hospitals and it costs 4 to 5thousand dollrs for the treament to cure arthritis .

    The cure for auto-immune disease is good idea the removal of all the Mercury that is in the mouth that your Dentist put in as a filling or root canal, Root canals harbour bacteria and cause inflamation and many diseases .
    . the Best would be to go to a dentist and pull all your teeth out they cause inflammation in your body due to bacteria

  • Ragini Roy says:

    Hey! Another of our attempts to represent and aware people about Arthritis. Any suggestions given is welcomed. If you like the video, please gives a thumbs up and share it. Have a nice day ahead. 

  • Kamaljeet Badesha says:

    your teaching is awesome

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