Tumour immunology and immunotherapy

Tumour immunology and immunotherapy


many genetic and environmental factors can cause tumors to form for instance UV radiation from the Sun can damage DNA and other structures in melanocytes which are the pigment producing cells in the skin chronic damage to melanocytes by UV radiation leads to most cases of melanoma which is a type of skin cancer as melanomas grow they can eventually spread to other sites in the body such as the lungs and liver the cells of the immune system are continuously monitoring our tissues natural killer cells or NK cells sent stress associated molecules on damaged and cancerous cells dendritic cells or dcs activate cytotoxic T cells which can then send tumor associated antigens using their T cell receptor and other Co receptors once activated NK cells and cytotoxic T cells release perforin and granzymes these molecules punch holes in the surface of the chima cells causing them to die by apoptosis helper T cells support these responses they help DC’s to activate cytotoxic T cells and they produce cytokines such as interferon gamma that recruit and activate more NK cells as the tumor evolves genetic changes occur that can give some tumor cells a survival advantage this means tumors are often heterogeneous for instance tumor cells may no longer express the molecules that are sensed by the killer immune cells as the immune system continues to kill the tumor cells it can recognize the cells it can’t sense more prevalent this is immuno editing it leads to the emergence of a tumor that can’t be detected by the immune system some tumor cells actively suppress t-cells by expressing inhibitory molecules such as PDL one PDL one binds to the PD one receptor on t-cells and deactivates them this is an immune checkpoint in addition tumor cells can attract immune cells that suppress the activity of other immune cells thereby supporting tumor growth these immunosuppressive cells include regulatory t-cells and certain types of myeloid cells therefore the tumor microenvironment is like the scene of a battle between two opposing immune responses one side of the immune system is attacking the tumor while the other side is helping it to grow scientists are developing immunotherapies to help strengthen the immune attack one approaches adoptive t-cell transfer cytotoxic t-cells taken from patients with melanoma are selected for their ability to attack tumor cells the best killers are infused back into the patient treating patients with cytokines such as interleukin 2 and interferon alpha can also boost the activity of anti-tumor immune cells an alternative approach is to target the immune checkpoints for instance antibodies that bind to PD one stop this molecule from switching off cytotoxic T cells another immune checkpoint being targeted is ctla-4 blocking this molecule helps DC’s to drive anti tumour t-cell responses not all patients will respond to these immunotherapies and some responses will be delayed combining immunotherapies with chemotherapy or radiotherapy can lead to a better response in some patients immunotherapies can themselves be combined for example PD one and ctla-4 blockade can improve responses when administered in combination activating the immune system has risks some patients develop harmful side effects when their immune system attacks healthy cells nevertheless there have been encouraging results from clinical trials this animation has focused on melanoma but it’s becoming clear that immunotherapies can be used to treat many different types of cancer you

85 Comments

  • Saud Alsaleh says:

    I dont remember subscribing to this channel

  • aLOOF gOALS says:

    Um, but don't the dendritic cells migrate and bring presented antigens to their cognate naive cytotoxic T-cells in the lymph tissues and activate them that way?
    In this video they show the dendritic cells activating cytotoxic T-cells in the skin… ayyy lmao

  • TSTB says:

    Fascinating video.
    My only comment: someone should actually make that cancer-fighting version of "Space Invaders".

  • Teemu M. says:

    so immunotherapy is another treatment alongside dna therapy

  • Nick Kassouf says:

    Fantastic video here.

  • Giulia Russo says:

    Thanks for sharing

  • W.O.N.WaterOxygenNutrition says:

    In other words keep immune system healthy and body in alkaline state to keep cancer killing mechanism at bay. The fastest and safest to achieve that is drink a lot of Kangen 9.5 pH water. If you already have cancer, add Reliv nutrition with Lunarich and get on Hyperbaric Oxygen sessions. Getting body in fighting mode is a job and an investment. Don't play with your health and life by experimenting with toxic drugs

  • Max Shen says:

    Love that space invaders animation

  • SoxRule says:

    dc express mhc-II NOT mhc-I ninny!

  • Eric Towler says:

    Fantastic, thanks for sharing.

  • Remembrance Production says:

    there is a different type of immunotherapy that. block the cd 47, and uses the macrophages instead of t cell to fight the cancer.

  • Remembrance Production says:

    cd 47 therapy combined with the available immunotherapy can help more and more people with cancer.

  • Remembrance Production says:

    Each individual's body reaction to medicine and therapy are different. a patient has to try and find the right medicine or combination for the body.

  • Remembrance Production says:

    keep looking… keep finding… don't give up hope.

  • Dani Backhouse says:

    WHAT ABOUT THE ANTIBODIES????

  • Sofya Kasatskaya says:

    Can I use this video with Nature Video credentials mention for teaching?

  • Jessica McDonald says:

    This animation is so cool

  • Chris Lau says:

    It may sound promising, but we still can't stop the tumor from adapting…

  • Steve-rogers says:

    DC > Marvel

  • Mikael Falk says:

    Awesome video, I really wish there were more animated videos like this one, that they were longer and more in-depth.

  • Russel Miller says:

    Great video on the topic. It should be used as a basic learning material for beginners. It's very helpful also for the understanding of immunotherapy, a type of cancer treatment designed to eradicate disseminated cancer by harnessing the potential of the immune system.
    http://www.bocsci.com/tag/cancer-immunotherapy-36.html

  • Cássia Corrêa says:

    beautiful! Thank you from Brazil!

  • Silas English says:

    4life Research have been doing their research on this 50 years ago.

  • Silas English says:

    the bad luck is, adverse and life threathing

  • Matt says:

    This helped a tremendous amount for my presentation. Thank you.

  • Nurse 7Love says:

    Chemotherapy and immunotherapy? really? Chemotherapy suppresses your immune system so what would be the point

  • danty Kionde says:

    nc

  • Marcos Arroyo says:

    How is the immune response from the macrophages against the tumoral cells?

  • Rozalia Boros says:

    Buuuul shit!

  • easymate says:

    amazing

  • Silence of the Lambs says:

    thanks

  • Justin A. says:

    The sun is a deadly lazer

  • Eleanor Sheekey says:

    This video is EPIC! Makes much sense of the long list of names and roles of the non-transformed tumour associated cells!

  • k s balaji says:

    Thank you for this very carefully and clearly thought out video.

  • Matthew Roy says:

    THE future of cancer treatments alongside TIL. Keep discovering!

  • Deggroll says:

    So if our body has a way to defend itself from cancer cells, why is it that cancer always wins?

  • PJ Arcellana says:

    Cancer Stages mean enlarged territorial invasion or occupancy rate of cancer cells in a particular organ of the body. Stage 4, the highest, means that cancer cells have already metastasized to other areas outside the affected organ e.g. from breast to brain areas or from prostate to lung areas.

    However, there's good news!!! Even in stage 4, the immune system today still has the ability to conquer and win over it!

    The key is to EDUCATE, BOOST AND BALANCE the immune system using Transfer Factor technology as proven in a Natural Killer Study that showed 97% of cancer cells (Leukemic cells K-562 model) were killed in just a 48-hour in-vitro test done by the Institute of Longevity Medicine of California, USA 1992-1999.

    In this test, the NK cells that were 'sleeping' beside the Leukemic cells in a petri dish were 'awakened' by Transfer Factor molecules which increased its killing rate by 437% vs cancer cells effectively wiping out 97% of the leukemic cells in just 2 days!!!

  • D-Gauss says:

    Fantastic graphics ! Great job Nucleus Medical Media.

  • GD MewPinkCat says:

    I got melanoma once, but I got rid of it because I used my fingernails to get rid of it.

  • TheOriginalMakaaka says:

    So, to save everyone some time and bother: at 1:18 they mention Apoptosis. Apoptosis is programmed cell death. In the video they do not explain that there are other ways to induce Apoptosis. Apoptosis is part of cell regulation. All cancer cells are unregulated cells. No matter what type of cancer it is, they are ALL unregulated cells. Regulation is what induces Apoptosis. Cancer cells do not have functioning receptors and that is why your endogenous cannabinoids fail to communicate with the cell. Therefore, the body has unregulated cells that cannot be regulated. The beauty of PhytoCannabinoids is that they perform the exact same role as endogenous cannabinoids except they last a lot longer and do not have a requirement for a functioning receptor so as to regulate a cell. A phytoCannabinoid can communicate through any hole in the cell such as a calcium gateway. PhytoCannabinoids have no obstruction when encountering even the most aggressive and deadly brain cancer. The only challenge is that the PhyoCannabinoids need direct contact with the tumor. In a real case, a man had 2 weeks to live and had the most deadly cancer known at the time. Consuming Cannabis takes a while to saturate the body and so to treat the cancer they injected Phytocannabinoids directly into the tumor area of the brain. Over the next few days, the cancer disappeared. And so Cannabis works on all Cancer 100% of the time. The key element is timing. If a patient has a short time to live, then the PhytoCannabinoids must be injected into the known Tumor areas. If the patient has longer than 8 weeks to live then they can consume Cannabis to induce Apoptosis in all the Cancer cells throughout the body. Everything stated here is taken from actual research performed by various US Universities and Hospitals, Raphael Mechoulam and other leading medical workers.
    The animation is cool but Cancer is literally a thing of the past now that everyone is being educated about their endogenous Cannabinoids and how Cannabis is literally the only compatible source of supplementation, on earth, for a Cannabinoid that performs the exact same role. I know 3 people personally that have had terminal cancer. 2 did chemo and light therapy and both spent a total of upto $160,000 on the treatment. Both died. The other one got busted and had to spend 10 months in prison until the charges were dropped but he didn't do Chemo and spent about 10k on his own Cannabis production and after 8 weeks he was free of Cancer. Because his doctor provided all the medical documentation, the courts dropped the charges as it was proven he used to plant to save his life. So the downside to saving your life is we have lobbied governments (paid off by big Pharma whom is the child company of Big Oil) and they punish you for saving a life. That's the way the world goes around and so it's up to people to do their own research so they understand the spectrum of information that is available. Then they can look at what is factual, what is paid for and by whom, what has been repeated and proven etc.

  • RainAngel111 says:

    Imo immunotherapy, especially the therapies focusing on killer T cells specific to the patients cancer, just may be the silver bullet we've been waiting for in the cure for cancer

  • man man says:

    Yeah, what about weed

  • David Tracey says:

    Excellent

  • Uxlar 2000 says:

    I hope they truly find a therapy- technique to cure so to rid these B.S. donation scams based on cancer research come to an end

  • Bose-Einstein says:

    Tumors are the perfect example of natural selection at work: which is why it baffles me any can think evolution doesn't happen. To deny evolution is to–by proxy–deny the existence of cancer.

  • SoyBoy SamBoy says:

    isnt this the same from cells at work XD

  • Gabriel Moreno says:

    thank you for this video. my genetics teacher made things more complicated than they have to be. this video makes visualizing what happens easier.

  • DrBLOOD says:

    If all medical books were replaced by animations like these, medical studies would be less boring, more easy to understand and remember and more attractive.

  • stella lee says:

    !!! PLEASE ADD THE KOREAN SUBTITLES I MADE !!! (There are parts that are translated liberally)

  • Jeffrey Koelewijn says:

    Very informative

  • Kawther Naseri says:

    Super great

  • Bojja Veeravasanthrao says:

    ALL Tumours permanent cure without surgerys only immunotherapy contact +917013552372,7730816175

  • Матфея cats says:

    Про че видео то?

  • hashhoomy says:

    سبحانك ربي ما أبدعك، وعلم الإنسان ما لم يعلم.

  • Roberta Annibale says:

    me encanta esta explicación para mejorar el conocimiento y razonamiento futuros

  • Lasha Zhvania says:

    if it will causes autoimmune disease , bazillion question is which is better, to be dead or suffer whole life with autoimmunity?

  • DannyVlogz says:

    Does immunotherapy work for every cancer ,

  • Homie says:

    It brought me more closer towards science.Please keep it up

  • Александр Масудзакович says:

    Сколько работы ты сделал, брат организм, прости, что не всегда заботился о тебе

  • Simple S says:

    Nk cell is my spirit animal

  • Tim Anderson says:

    Thanks for this video, it is good! I am Tim Anderson and I have my bachelor's degree in Psychology.

  • Steven Banerjee says:

    Can anyone share the link to the background music? What a fascinating musical score?

  • Ordinary Mevaker Edwin says:

    Remodified space (cancer) invador

  • About Studies says:

    Thank you

  • Marc McGowan says:

    Life saver. I have to give a trial lecture on lung cancer and the immune system as part of my PhD defence. This video helped me understand all therapies thereafter. Thank you. Please accept one of my papers for publishing 🙂

  • TheFenerbahceSK says:

    So many abbreviations in this vid.

  • Hasib Al Hasan says:

    this mechanism Is like as a vedio game I played many times

  • Thato Mohlathe says:

    I consider this—the content a bunch of rubbish. Knowledge you cannot apply and get healing. It is as though this "lesson" has mentioned the technical events of the immune system response against cancer BUT OF COURSE, DOES NOT REVEAL THE NUTRITION NEEDED TO ACT ON THE PROBLEM DOMAIN WHICH CAUSES IMMUNODEFICIENCY.

    After the much learning, patients still die with their immune system in them if not offered chemotherapy which is more lethal than the disease. It seems, the cause of being a physician has escaped this industry and that is to cure the patient.

    Whom among those who have the immunological knowledge have cured a single patient? The immune system was surely put by God in the body with purpose to cure with the intervention of the correct knowledge. In fact those who have the correct knowledge of the nutritional product to use have escaped death though not knowing it acts in concert with the immune system.

    Those who have gathered the knowledge which is so irrelevant in the domain of cures die themselves.

    One must measure knowledge versus the vision. Will this help? Can it heal the patient? The answer is no. It is like knowing all the car parts, the building blocks that are unified to complete the whole and exist in a complex network, the technicalities of the car but you have no fuel to get the car to work. It is useless knowledge.

    Matthew 12:42

    Jesus is a Rose of Sharon

  • Nageswariprasad Gudala says:

    is immuno therophy works on brain tumor..that to pilocytic astrocytoma tumor ..my 5yrs child had that tumor..surgery,radio therophy. .chemotherapy all r failed to cure the disease.

  • Fernando Flores says:

    👍💪⚡

  • Rainuriftiann EhziraElwancen says:

    Immunologi natrure.

  • Raj chaurasiya says:

    buttery animation 😊

  • Dr. Rania Raouf says:

    Thanks for your clear explanations, Many thanks

  • Wallace Rose says:

    Animations always make it look so easy.

  • tractor says:

    BS ! Medical propaganda . Medical drs failed miserable in cancer . Why let them to tell you stories. In fact medical drs have more cancer than general population.

  • tractor says:

    Waste of time ! This video is stupid, medical crap !

  • Clark Kent says:

    The ONLY TRUE CANCER CURE and it is NOT corrupt big pharma link below
    share and send far and wide ..see the YOUTUBE video of GCMAFF KILLING
    LATE STAGE CANCER DEAD ..SEE THE PERSECUTION of DAVID NOKES and Lynn who
    saved 1000s this is the
    linkhttps://www.saisei-mirai.or.jp/en/treatments/concept-gan/

  • tania kaif says:

    more ınfo for cancer 087717888876

  • Health And Life says:

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GJIkt2BPTP4

  • Shewit Abraham says:

    We can overcome cancer and thrive won't give up in Jesus Christ Name. Let be done in Jesus Christ Blood.

  • Mostapha Benhenda says:

    How to better predict cancer immunotherapy results: https://youtu.be/7ACNiebz0ko
    A video series from scratch to cutting-edge research

  • Liborio Quinto says:

    ottimo video

  • Kristine M. Rodriguez says:

    This is magnificent. Wow I finally got rid of my cancer and diabetes after I used doctor kanayo natural herbal medicine. But before using it I thought it was impossible until I came across a testimony here on YouTube by someone named Ashley. Without delay I thought I should give it a try because my doctor told me I had 4 weeks left. So little did I know God has been listening to all my prayers, I love you Ashley for introducing me to dr kanayo, . contact dr kanayo natural cure today text his WhatsApp= +19093755642 I am going to share this wonderful testimony with the public because I felt all hope was lost. It’s Thanksgiving all the way. I’m going to pray God keep you safe from the government. Keep helping Dr. you are forever in my prayers. I love you doctor kanayo

  • TheUltra Gamer says:

    Amazing we are to close to find cure for all cancers

  • Anthony Ward says:

    Very interesting!

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