ROM Measurement Procedures: Knee Flexion and Extension

ROM Measurement Procedures: Knee Flexion and Extension


Knee flexion and extension
are also measured in supine. Place the center
of the goniometer over the lateral epicondyle
of the knee. The stationary arm goes
along the lateral midthigh, toward the greater trochanter. The moving arm goes along
the midline of the lower leg, toward the lateral malleolus
of the ankle. If the patient can achieve
this starting position with the reading of zero at the large black arrow,
he has full knee extension. Record a zero on the form
in the knee extension box. If the patient can extend
the knee more than straight, or hyperextend it,
as in this case, read the number of degrees
beyond zero that the shin moves. This patient has 5 degrees
of knee hyperextension. Record it as a positive number
on the form in the knee hyperextension box and record a zero
in the knee extension box. If the patient cannot completely
straighten his knee and the goniometer is bent
when properly aligned, the patient is lacking
full extension. Read the number of degrees
from zero to how far toward extension
the patient’s shin can move, as indicated by the large
black arrow. This patient is 6 degrees
from the zero starting position. This should be recorded
as a negative number in the knee extension box. Next, bring the knee
into a flexed position, keeping the goniometer aligned. Geraghty: As with hip flexion,
some patients will feel more comfortable
with support under the thigh and not over the shin. Gravity will pull
the knee into flexion. Holtzman: Read the number
on the goniometer indicated by the large
black arrow. This patient has 133 degrees
of knee flexion. Record this number
in the knee flexion box. This is an example of a patient
with 90 degrees of knee flexion.

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