Nutritional Seminar

Nutritional Seminar


>>Soy. I don’t know why
it’s got that name in it. And then nut consumption
correlates with reduced coronary
artery disease. So you can kind of read
through some of this. By the way, this
presentation says it has a ton of information in it. Feel free– is it
okay, Laura, for them– where should they email you
for a copy of the presentation so you’ll have all
the information? Okay? So nuts is on here. We’ve heard a lot about nuts. So I’m going to go ahead
and move on over to some of the cancer-fighting
foods real fast. I think that this is
really interesting, because this is fascinating
to me. Because there are
different stages of cancer development, okay? And it takes 10 to
40 years, sometimes. You can be in the middle stage, or what we call the
latent phase, where things are reversible. You know? If you’re
doing good nutrition, you can actually
reverse the chances that that is leading to cancer. So this is impactful. So basically, cancer
can be caused by external factors,
and internal factors. What I want to do
real fast is go through the stages
of development. There is something
called initiation. And this is where you have that
single normal cell that is going to turn into a cancer cell. It involves genetic damage,
or alteration of cellular DNA by a carcinogen,
which is a substance that tends to stimulate cancer. So for example, this is why you
hear a lot about smoked foods, nitrate-containing– these
are called “initiators.” So in other words, they can
create the initial damage to that cell. Okay? Happens rapidly. And although initially
reversible, it can later become
irreversible. It does not alone cause cancer,
but a cell that has been altered or mutated will now, can
pass that information down to its daughter cells, and that can potentially
become cancerous as time goes. So promotion is the next stage. It involves, you have this
initiated cell, right? And now it’s being
repetitively exposed to what we call promoters
of cancer. This is where a high fat diet is
considered a promoter of cancer. It has been linked to
promotion of colon, breast, endometrial, prostate cancer. It occurs over a
long period of time. The period of time between
exposure to a promoter, and development of a malignancy,
can be 10 to 40 years. That’s why we focus on a lot–
you’ll see these conditions crop up with people who have
long-standing diets. So almost everybody that comes
to me that has had colon cancer, high, high red meat diet. That’s highly– and high fat
diet in addition to that, has been long-standing
for years. And progression, an irreversible
sequence involving the malignant cell behavior, invasion
of adjacent tissues. So this is pretty much where it
is irreversible at this stage. So we have lots of things
that cause cancer, right? So what I think you’ll find is that genetics plays
about 10 percent. Okay? So where does
everything else, what happens? Well it can come from things
that are just naturally in our environment, like
geophysical, 3 percent. Our occupational hazards,
sometimes pollution, industrial products, medicines
or x-rays, all those things that we do for screening. Viruses. Epstein-Barr has
been linked to hepatitis-B, human papilloma virus, all those
things, those are responsible for about 10 percent
of cancers worldwide. And then you’ve got
those lifestyle factors that you can control. And what we’re finding is
tobacco use, diet, alcohol, excessive exposure to
sunlight or tanning beds, sexual behavior patterns,
general personal hygiene; diet seems to be 35 percent
related to cancer mortality, tobacco 30, alcohol
3, reproductive and sexual behavior 7; smoking
remains the most preventable cause of death in this country. We talked about how that can
cause cardiovascular disease by causing the lesions
inside of the arteries. Smoking, of course, the
carcinogens that are in smoking, we all know about that. If someone consumes alcohol
heavily, in addition to smoking, they work synergistically
to produce cancer. So, they’re much,
much more at risk if they drink alcohol and smoke. So estimated that 40
percent of cancer incidence in men is associated with diet,
60 percent of cancer incidence in women is associated
with diet. So we do have some
say in some of this. So some lifestyle
recommendations. High fat diets are
not recommended, particularly high saturated fat. Those ones that we’re
trying to avoid for heart health anyway
are the ones we really want to cut out the most. Maintain a healthy weight. Avoid being underweight
or overweight, and limit your weight gain
during adulthood to less than 11 pounds; that has
been said to be effective. Stay active, limit alcohol,
particularly if women have or are worried about
breast cancer. We’ve seen a high correlation
between drinking more than one drink per
day of alcohol and incidents of breast cancer. Here is the interesting
thing about that, right? Say I don’t drink Monday
through Thursday, four days. I think well four days,
I didn’t have a drink, I can have those on Friday! No. It doesn’t work that way. It still ups your risk. So don’t think of it on average, think of it anytime
you have alcohol, one drink a day is what
is recommended for women, two for men, if they’re
going to drink. So at the end of
this presentation, there is actually
some serving sizes. Five ounces of wine,
a 12-ounce beer, a shot of 80 proof
liquor, that type of thing. Don’t smoke. Eat a variety of healthy foods,
emphasis on plant sources. If someone said to me, I am
the most motivated person in the world, tell me the
healthiest diet to follow; I’m going to probably
put them vegan. Okay? I am vegetarian,
not vegan, because vegan is a little
too hard for me to do. There’s no cancer
incidence in my family. I’m hoping that maybe I don’t
need to– but anyway, it is. We know the China
study has looked at several different
areas of the world. We know that vegetarian is
the healthiest way to go, but it’s not always the
most doable for everybody. So, but the plant sources. As many plant sources as
you can get into your diet. Limit consumption of red meats, because it has been
highly correlated with cardiovascular
disease, and also cancer. Five or more servings of
fruits and veggies a day. Work on just getting
those intakes up. Do not eat charred food. A lot of people haven’t
heard about this. That is a carcinogen. Used to like that blackened–
when I did eat meat, that blackened part of
the chicken, or whatever. That is actually carcinogenic. So you really don’t
want to be doing that. Limit how much you eat meat that is actually broiled
in a direct flame. Keep screening for cancer. Communicate with your physician. Let them know when
anything changes. I can hang around to finish a
little bit, but if anybody needs to get back to work, please
don’t worry about getting up and leaving, because I
am running a little late on my presentation. Antioxidants– what are they? They are compounds that prevent or repair damage
to cells, right? That are caused by pollution,
sunlight, normal body processes. They scavenge and destroy those
free radicals we were talking about, that cause those
genetic variances on your DNA. They block chemical reactions
that destroy free radicals in the first place, and destroy
ones that are already formed. So you’ve got lists of
cancer-fighting foods here. Yellow-orange fruits
and vegetables. Cruciferous vegetables like
radish, broccoli, cauliflower. Tomatoes, that lycopene
works the same way with cancer prevention. Grapes. Those– that dark
kind of purple flavonoid, those are really
high in antioxidants. Vitamin D, actually, interestingly what they
have also found, you know, we make vitamin D when we go
into the sunlight, actually, our skin can help
convert sunlight into vitamin D. What we found
is that women who live in parts of the world that don’t have
much sunlight have higher rates of breast cancer. They have linked low
levels of vitamin D to lots of different diseases,
but cancer is one of them. We don’t get it much
through our food supply, but you will find it in
fortified milk and egg yolks. Omega-3 fatty acids. We’ve seen that with
cancer prevention as well. So again, the fish and the
flax seed that we talked about. The interesting thing about
flax seed is that in some of these studies, they’ve
actually used it in some studies to shrink the size of breast
cancer before they go in and actually excise
the rest of it out. So we believe it’s really,
really powerful for that. A lot of the studies
on foods and cancer, you’ll see it associated
a lot with breast cancer, because there’s a lot of money
behind breast cancer research, so we think it’s applicable to
other types of cancer as well. Remember that peel
and the white membrane in the oranges, that’s great. That is going to be
cancer preventive also. Dietary fiber. And your grains,
that’s why I don’t like to see people go
completely, totally grain free, because usually they’re
not getting in a lot of the beneficial fibers. Green tea have a
lot of polyphenols. Caffeinated green tea has
twice as much antioxidants as decaffeinated, okay? One hundred times the
antioxidant power — 100 times the antioxidant power of vitamin C. That’s
what green tea has. So green tea is great for you. We think black tea is as well. Olive oil has some
phytochemicals and antioxidants in it, as well as vitamin E.
They’re doing some studies with dark cherries, that
has a compound in it that has been inhibiting
mammary cancer in rats. Garlic, and the sulfur compound,
that really pungent taste and smell, has actually
killed cancer in test tubes. So, if you’re going to cook it
though, always peel and chop up your garlic and let
it sit for 10 minutes, so that those compounds
can develop. Spinach has also been linked to decreased rates
of breast cancer. Soy. Okay here is what I am
going to tell you about soy. Soy is entirely 100 percent
a great food source to use for prevention of cancer. Where some controversy exists
is if I already have some sort of cancer developing, and
I don’t know about it, and I start to do soy foods
heavily, they are worried that can actually generate/speed
up that cancer a little bit. And that is why you’ll see women
who have had breast cancer, doctors will tell them
to avoid soy products. But we’re not quite sure
about that, actually. It is more of a cautionary
thing to do. But it is such– basically
it mimics the structure of estrogen. It basically replaces
those strong estrogens. It blocks the receptor
sites, soy does. And so those estrogen-related
cancers can really be prevented by using a lot of soy. So again, tofu is a
great source of it, and I like the edamame
and soy nuts. Nuts and seeds, all of these
things right here, copper, oleic acid, vitamin E, omega 3, these are very potent
antioxidants. The capsaicin in peppers has
also been shown to kill some of the cancer in test tubes. The pectin in apples–
always eat the peel. If you can eat the
peel of a fruit or vegetable, try to do it. Wash it really well
and try to eat it, the ones that are edible. Because a lot of the beneficial
antioxidants are in the peel or right under the surface of
the peel, so when you peel it, you actually peel
away some of it. So try to use it when possible. Beans have protease
inhibitors, which also help with inhibition of cancer cells. Fava beans are the highest. And of course, we talked
about the citrus fruits. Blueberries– oh my goodness. They contain more antioxidants than probably almost any other
fruit or vegetable, I would say, because they keep doing
a little more research in some of the other berries. What I also say is the
research that links blueberries to the prevention of dementia and Alzheimer’s is
very, very strong. Used to– we thought,
when you had the death of a brain cell,
that’s it, it’s gone. Nope. Blueberries regenerate it. You can actually grown new
brain cells if you get it, and what they’re saying is to
try to use a half cup to a cup of blueberries every single day. They think it might extrapolate
to other berries as well, but blueberries are the
ones they’ve been studying. Fascinating stuff. So we did a whole talk on this
for something called neuro night in Oklahoma City, OU Med Center. So that is something
I would recommend for just about anybody. Fresh raw vegetables
are more protective than cooked vegetables. If cooking, cook lightly. That is for the most part. So here are the things
I’m going to caution, then we’re tying up here. Omega 6 fatty acids are
found in vegetable, corn oil, soybean oil based
mayonnaise, dairy products, things of that nature. We already get so much of it
in our diet that we are trying to lower it, because you know
what Omega 6 fatty acids do when you get too much? It leads to estrogen
production, and so again, those hormone-related
cancers are affected by that. Trans fatty acids. Margarine, French fries,
processed foods, anything made with hydrogenated fats,
may increase the risk of breast cancer specifically. Red meat and/or meat cooked
well done is something that we also want to limit, because of the carcinogenic
effect of well-done red meat. Also there are high– it is
highly, highly correlated with colon cancer as well. Nitrates and nitrites– preservatives that are used to
prevent bacterial overgrowth in all those things
like bologna, ham, hot dogs, bacon that you buy. Also used as a color and
flavor enhancer in many foods. Those are strongly linked with
stomach and esophageal cancer. Used to be called “the blue
collar worker’s cancer,” basically. They take their bologna
sandwich to work every day, and that is one of the
reasons you would see such high incidences, is the processed meats
and nitrates in that. So here is that information
on alcohol. Trying to limit your
consumption of alcohol. So as you can see from
things we talked about today, is that food is powerful. And so many different stages
of that progression of cancer and cardiovascular disease. And we have seen people. I guess probably one of the
most notable public figures, probably, is President Bill
Clinton actually reversed cardiovascular disease,
reversed it entirely. He follows more like
a vegan type diet. You don’t see evidence. And there are many other people
like that if they’re willing to make some dramatic changes, and they can actually
reverse disease. It’s definitely easier
to prevent, and start changing
those behaviors. Now. And into the future. And remember, too, you know, most women who get breast cancer
don’t have any family history of it. They don’t. So I used to think I
probably don’t have to worry about that, right? I don’t have anybody in
my family that has had it. But yeah, you can
be at risk for it. I’ve had friends diagnosed
with it, no family history. We have to think
about what we’re doing with our sedentary lifestyle,
and then what are we getting in? We are missing lots
of nutrients. So focus on getting
in what you can. Increase those fruits and
vegetables and bean consumption, all of those things, and then
try to start gradually cutting down on the things that we
say are more of the limit and that will be
really powerful. Okay, I’m sorry I went over. I knew there was going to be a
lot of information in this one. But does anybody
have any questions? Also, feel free, if
you need to leave. If anybody has any questions,
I can take those now, or I will hang around up
here for a couple minutes. All right. Yes?>>How about tea in K-cups?>>Tea in a what?>>K cup.>>Oh! Oh, oh, oh. I don’t know. Because, you know, we don’t have
a study for that one [laughs], but I would assume that in
the K-cup, it’s pretty much, if you’ve ever opened one of
those to look inside of them, it’s probably more
comparable a little bit to like the ones I open are more
like the loose teas, kind of? I don’t know that it is
going to be as effective as the actual brewed tea,
because they want you to brew it for three solid minutes
to get all those poly– you’re probably getting
some out of it, you know? You really are, it’s just
probably not optimum. I would say brewed tea,
actually brewed on the stove, would probably be
the best option. Let it steep for a while. Yes?>>Is that with the China study, they did studies on
milk consumption?>>Yes.>>And said it was directly
linked in the studies to cancer development? What do you think about that?>>Yeah, and there’s
different reasons. There’s been some different
theories proposed on that. So it’s hard to say. I mean, I think that one
of the books, by the way, that does a really good,
like, lay explanation of many of the things from the
China study, plus more, is the Eat to Live book,
and because he does such a wonderful job
going through the science of why we recommend that, and
he actually is a big proponent of limiting dairy
as well if you can. Because of things
like arachidonic acid, other components that are in
it that can be deemed– yes. Yeah. The acidity. Also, you know, they’ve
actually seen, and this is where it’s confusing because they say drink
milk for good bones. We’ve actually seen a
lot of people with — that had almost excessive
milk consumption in their younger years that actually have
lower bone density. So, who knows? You know? On that. But just because of
what’s in milk products, a lot of contaminants,
if you don’t do organic, a lot of times, I tell people to
try to limit milk consumption. But from that particular aspect. And not sure. Any other questions? All right. Well, thanks for coming today. I appreciate it. I’ll be up here for
a couple minutes. Well we might as well wait
just a few more minutes and see if anybody else comes in. [ Background Sounds ]>>Good afternoon. I’ll start by introducing
myself. Was anybody at the last
presentation last month? I thought I recognized
some faces. So a few of you were not here, so I’ll go ahead and
introduce myself. My name is Kimberly
Davis-Coniglio. I am a Registered Dietician,
based out of Norman. I’ve been in private
practice for about, I’d say probably 13 years. I started out as a dietician
at the University of Oklahoma, on the campus, as
the campus dietician, and then after a
couple of years went into private practice
for myself. I currently see clients
in office, and do a lot of virtual consultations, since
I have clients in other parts of the state, in other
parts of the country. And that is kind of where
a lot of telemedicine and medicine is going
into telemedicine. So today, what we are going
to talk about is power foods, prevention and treatment
of disease. And what I like to tell people about is how did I
become a dietician? Or why did I decide
to become a dietician? Can everyone hear me okay? Okay. I was one of
those college kids that switched majors
so many times. I was very bright,
straight-A student. That wasn’t the problem. But I guess I was wise enough to
realize that whatever I wanted to do as a career, I knew I
had to have a passion for it. So I would switch my major, and
then I’d go get a little job in that area and see
what it was really like. For some reason I wanted
to become a pharmacist, because I thought it
was really interesting. Then the day to day, I was like, no I don’t see myself
doing that. So I switched my major several
times, and ended up actually with an undergrad
degree in psychology, because I thought it
was really interesting. But in my senior year
of my undergrad degree, I took a wonderful nutrition
course, taught by Dr. Knehanz at the University of
Oklahoma, and learned so much in that introductory
nutrition course. And I was fascinated by the fact that nutrition is not
just preventative, but good nutrition can actually
treat and reverse disease. So I thought that was amazing. And we all grow up knowing
the importance of nutrition. You know, drink your
milk for strong bones, all those things that you learn. Eat your fruits and veggies. But today what you’re going
to see hopefully as we go through this presentation is
exactly how powerful food is. And specifically, in the area
of cardiovascular disease and in the area of cancer
prevention, and being able to see how powerful that is, I
think, gets people motivated. The other thing I like to focus
on as a dietician is focusing on what are good foods to eat? Because, you know, when you
go to your doctor’s office, a lot of people will say, well
they kind of handed me a sheet of paper and said
follow this diet, for whatever condition
they might have. And a lot of times, that sheet
of paper tells you what to limit or what to stop eating, right? And so people are left going,
“Well what do I eat then?” So what I have found
to be really effective with helping create some change
in the areas of nutrition is to focus on what can you have? What should you be focusing
on adding into your diet? A lot of times that
will push out the stuff that you shouldn’t be
eating as much of anyway. And then, of course, giving
you a little bit of information on what to limit
is helpful, too. So what I did with this
presentation is actually kind of moosh together a couple of
presentations I normally do. One is called Foods
that Fight Cancer, and the other one is Power Foods
for Cardiovascular Disease. So you are going to
get information on both of those topics today. So I want to start with it’s
just talking a little bit about mortality in America, and
the top ten causes of death. This has actually
changed within, uh, there is a presentation
I used to do for students at OU probably about
eight years ago, and this has changed
quite a bit. Not the number one and number
two, but where everything falls within the rest of the
top ten has changed. For instance, Alzheimer’s
disease used to not be listed as a top ten cause of death, but as you’ll see,
it’s number six now. Number one is heart disease. Number two is cancer. Three is chronic lower
respiratory disease. Things like COPD, emphysema,
all those lung diseases. Accidents is number four. Stroke number five. Alzheimer’s number six. Seven is diabetes. Eight, influenza and pneumonia. Nine, kidney disease. And ten is suicide. And eight out of the
ten causes are nutrition or lifestyle related. So, of course, we can take
off accidents and suicide for being directly nutrition
related, or lifestyle related. Some people ask,
well how is influenza and pneumonia nutrition related? Many people who end up in
the hospital with influenza and pneumonia are
already undernourished. Sometimes you’ll see elderly
that are undernourished, underweight, and that
actually is what leads to their mortality rate with
influenza and pneumonia. Some of these other ones
definitely make sense. Heart disease, cancer, stroke,
which we will talk about. Alzheimer’s disease. That is a big area
of study right now. It’s, some of what we’re
seeing is leading us to believe it’s kind of like
inflammation in the brain, diabetes of the brain
in a sense. So there is a lot of studies
going on about what can help with prevention in those areas. Okay, so let’s talk a little
bit more about statistics. In 2011, we found
that 52 percent of adults did not
meet recommendations for aerobic exercise. Which the recommendations that
we’re looking at is to exercise at least 150 minutes per week, and then 76 percent did not meet
the recommendations for muscle and strength exercise as well. Forty-seven percent
of adults had at least one major risk factor
for heart disease and stroke. So either uncontrolled
high blood pressure, uncontrolled LDL, which is
your bad cholesterol levels, or they were a current smoker. And 90 percent of Americans
consume too much sodium, which can be a risk factor for cardiovascular
disease in some people. And then, of course, we can’t
forget to look a little bit at just the weight, obesity and
overweight epidemic in America. So 71 percent of Americans
are overweight, and 38 percent of Americans are not only
overweight, but they also fall into the classification
of obesity. And if you’re wondering what
classifies you as overweight or obese, what the medical
profession uses is the BMI scale. And so a BMI of 25 to 29.9
indicates someone is overweight. A BMI of 30 and over is obese. I will tell you dieticians
don’t love the BMI. It’s Body Mass Index; it’s
basically a comparison of your height to your weight. Doesn’t take into
consideration muscle mass. How much of your weight
is muscle versus fat? So if we can get more
information on that, that’s what we like to do –
is do some body fat testing. A lot of men actually
come up overweight, because they have a lot
of muscle mass on them. And so when we do body fat
testing, sometimes we find that they’re not overweight. However, the BMI was designed,
that tool was designed to look at the average American. And it works pretty well
for the average American. Oklahoma is one of
the nine states with the highest
prevalence of obesity. Something that is
really important to look at is waist circumference. And I focus on this a lot in
initial sessions with clients. On average, the American man
has a waist circumference that is almost about 40 inches, and for American
women, 37 and a half. So why is that concerning? Because a waist circumference
above 35 for women, and above 40 for men, indicates what
we call abdominal obesity. So actually someone
can be a normal BMI, but have an abdominal obesity. Maybe that is kind of
like our body type. Some people put on
weight in the middle. And this will place
one at a higher risk for heart disease
and Type 2 diabetes. So weight loss is
recommended in general for lots of health conditions, but also
prevention of health conditions. Many times you will
find that weight loss, even a 10 percent weight loss
will help somebody normalize their blood pressure issues. They’ll start to
see better control of their blood sugar numbers. So it’s always a
good goal to start with a 10 percent weight loss
if someone is overweight. Then modify that
goal as time goes on. One to two pounds per week is
a good rate of weight loss. Why? Because we want it
coming from body fat. We don’t want you
breaking down muscle mass. And if you lose weight too
fast, more than 2 pounds a week, it’s pretty much guaranteed
that you’re breaking down some muscle mass,
which we do not want to do because that is your
major determinant of your metabolic rate. Okay? So and also what I
found with clients is one to two pounds per week is
pretty doable for them. Most people, if they’re
going to focus on one area, either nutrition or
physical activity, they can do one pound per week. If they focus on
both pretty hardcore, they can usually lose the 2
pounds a week of body fat. Also physical activity. It contributes to weight loss. It decreases abdominal fat, increases this cardiorespiratory
fitness, helps maintain that weight loss, which
is really important, and in the last presentation
that I did last month, I kind of focused on that. It’s not just about
losing the weight. It’s about maintaining
that weight loss. Right? Because we all know
how to lose weight, and again, 96 percent of Americans who
lose weight regain that weight. And so what we want
to do is focus on how do we pull it
off and keep it off? And one of the things
I tell clients is, if you’re not willing to
get physically active, you might be able to go
ahead and lose weight through nutritional changes,
but I doubt you’ll be able to keep that weight off. Physical activity
is very important for keeping the weight off. Initially, starting
out at 30 to 45 minutes of cardiovascular activity
three to five days per week but really trying to get
people where they’re doing at least 30 minutes a day, and the good news is
it can be something as simple as brisk walking. That’s very, very helpful. Some additional risk
factors that we look at, outside of just weight,
is high blood pressure, like hypertension;
high LDL cholesterol, which is considered
your bad cholesterol; low HDL cholesterol,
which is considered your good cholesterol. So what I always
like to explain is that your bad cholesterol is one that if the levels are too high
it can cause plaque buildup on the inside of your arteries, but the good cholesterol
is the one that tries to clean it up, right? And that’s why you want
to have good numbers on both sides of that. High triglycerides, which
is a circulating fat in our bloodstream, high
blood glucose, family history of premature heart disease. So if someone who
maybe has a parent that developed heart disease
in their 30s, or their 40s, or even 50s, can be
considered premature. Physical inactivity is a risk
factor for bad health, and also, of course, cigarette smoking. So what I am going
to focus on first is in general just cardiovascular
disease. Now, what you’re going to
find when I start talking about specific foods is
that you’ll see some foods that are really good
for prevention of cardiovascular disease,
and also are going to be on the prevention
of cancer list, too. So, high blood pressure. Nearly one in three U.S.
adults have hypertension. But only a third
are aware of it. So in the medical community, we always call this the
silent killer, because there’s so many people walking around
with high blood pressure and they don’t feel
the symptoms. They have no clue. Maybe they’re not going to
their regular doctor visits. It’s the single most important
risk factor for stroke, and stroke again is
the number five cause of death among Americans. The cause is unknown in
about 90-95 percent of cases, but we do know what helps
control it or reverse it. And that for the most part is
weight loss, almost every client that comes in with
high blood pressure one of the things we’re
going to focus on is getting some weight
off because that seems to help it drastically. It either reverses it
entirely or it helps manage it. And one of the things — why is
high blood pressure a problem? Well, think about your arteries. When they’re wide and
open, and blood circulates through easily, that’s great. When for some reason those
arteries are either getting occluded or narrowing, that means that the blood
is increasing pressure, trying to go through a
smaller space, right? And that is where you’ll
start to see damage to vessels that are going to your brain, to
your heart, and to your kidneys. So, basically those organs
aren’t getting the oxygen they need, and that’s what
causes some of the problems that you’ll see with
kidney disease. High blood pressure is very
much linked to dementia. One of the causes of dementia. It can cause damage to the
vascular areas of your brain. And then of course it
can damage your heart. Now, atherosclerosis,
this is the process of where those fatty
substances, cholesterol, cellular waste products,
calcium and fibrin buildup in the inner lining
of your artery. And usually this can be caused
by high cholesterol levels, and another thing is
cigarette smoking. Anything that comes in that
goes through your bloodstream and causes little lesions
to form on the inside of your arteries, so let’s
just take cigarette smoking as an example. So the chemicals in cigarette
smoking and your blood go through your artery and cause
these little lesions to form, you know, little nicks on
the inside of your arteries. So that’s a place that
when that cholesterol comes through it has a place to
grab onto, that little lesion. So it will start sticking there. And that is why cigarette
smoking is highly correlated with atherosclerosis. Approximately 107 million
American adults have total blood cholesterol levels above
what is considered desirable. One of the things though
that we are focusing more on as a medical community is not
really just total cholesterol, and I don’t like when I see
physicians run a total number but they don’t run
the LDL and the HDL because you can have
a high total and still have decent
LDL and HDL numbers. And if your HDL is high, that
can be, for the most part, unless it’s just drastically
high, it’s a good thing, right? So we always want to make sure that you’re getting your
LDL and HDL looked at. And really they’re going
a little bit further than that now. Some physicians, there
is additional testing on the density of the particles, so do you have small,
really dense LDL? Or do you have big, less dense
LDL because we know the smaller, dense ones cause more damage. There’s some genetic
testing that is going along with heart disease as
well and so we’re finding that more tests are available
to calculate your risk. So let’s look at some
of the power foods. Prevention and Treatment
of Cardiovascular Disease. Some of you may have heard
the term functional foods. That term has been
around for a while. And these are foods that provide
a health benefit beyond just the simple nutrients
that they provide. So in other words, beyond the
fact that this is high vitamin C or beyond the fact that this
is a good protein source. Maybe it lowers cholesterol
levels, lowers blood pressure, something of that nature. Supplementation with
individual components of food that are found in functional
foods is not nearly as powerful as consuming them
through food sources. So I always try to emphasize
that there are hundreds of phytochemicals in
fruits and vegetables, and so when you just focus
on isolating one of them and putting them in a pill
form, it’s not going to be as effective as getting
it through the food form because they all work
synergistically together to enhance your health. So let’s look at
some specific ones. Beans are really at
the top of the list. You know, when talk about
fruits and vegetables, we really like to
include beans in this, because they are really,
really good for health. Men and women who ate beans
at least four times per week in studies had a 22
percent lower risk of coronary heart disease
compared with those who consumed beans
less than once a week. And those who ate the beans
most frequently had lower blood pressure and total cholesterol. So what is it about beans? Well, for one thing,
there is a particular type of fiber called soluble fiber
that beans are really high in. And just so you know, let me explain the
two different fibers. You’ve got insoluble
fiber and soluble fiber. So insoluble fiber is the
type of fiber you think of when you think of
wheat bran cereal, something that is really
dense and feels kind of woody. It actually moves things
through your colon, so we call it nature’s broom. It kind of sweeps everything
through, which is good. Soluble fiber is different. It actually forms a gel inside
your colon, so it’s kind of softer, and it actually binds
cholesterol in your intestines, and so that’s going to decrease
your circulating cholesterol. Clinical studies have shown
that cholesterol levels drop between .5 and 2
percent for every gram of soluble fiber eaten per day. So when you see those
commercials related to Cheerios, oatmeal, they’re talking about the soluble
fiber that’s in that. Consumption of just half a
cup of beans each day is just as effective as oat bran in lowering blood
cholesterol levels. For some reason, we don’t
see those commercials. And of course, beans you have that bad side effect
for some people. Also some evidence that soluble
fiber can slow the liver’s manufacture of cholesterol, as well as low density
lipoprotein particles, to make them larger and
less dense, so that’s great. The other thing about beans
is that it’s high in folate. And folate plays a critical
role in the reduction of homocysteine levels. I don’t know if any of you have
heard of homocysteine levels. Sometimes your doctor will focus
on that and will test for that. Homocysteine is an
amino acid byproduct from protein metabolism, and if
homocysteine levels are high, they’re actually seen that
that is a separate risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We don’t want homocysteine
levels to be high. So folate plays a critical
role in the reduction of your homocysteine levels. High levels of homocysteine
are found in 20 to 40 percent of patients with
coronary artery disease, and of course the genetic
studies are looking at genetics, and are there certain genetic
types that are just more at risk for higher homocysteine levels,
and what do we do about that. Just one cup of cooked garbanzo
beans provides 70 percent of your daily requirement
of folate. The other thing about beans
is that they’re very high in potassium, calcium,
and magnesium. This is a mineral and
electrolyte combination that is associated
with reduced risk of heart disease
and hypertension. What I’ll talk about here in just a little bit is
something called The DASH diet. Dietary Approaches
to Stop Hypertension. And what it focuses on is
really these combinations of minerals and electrolytes. And it’s so effective; it’s one
of the most underrated diets. Do you know why? Because it’s free. It’s not a book. Nobody wrote a book to
try to sell it to you. It’s a free diet that
can lower the top number of your blood pressure
by 10 to 12 points. I always make sure that
if someone comes to me with high blood pressure
in addition to weight loss, if needed, we focus
immediately on the DASH diet, so they can see immediate
results with that and some people get
off their medications. So tips for consumption
and preparation of beans. Put canned beans in a strainer,
and rinse them with cool water, and that’s going to eliminate
about 40% of the sodium that is in canned beans. The reason why we talk
about canned beans is because they’re easy, right? So there’s a lot of nutrition
information that we give, but we have to try to
simplify it as much as possible for people. People know that it’s best to
get the dry beans, cook them up; cook up a pot of beans, right? I’m sure that’s healthier
than canned, but is someone actually
going to do that? Or make the time to do that? So we do still say, well,
canned beans are good. You can actually find lower
sodium versions available now, which is good, but you can also
rinse those off and get rid of a lot of the sodium. Make hummus. You can take garbanzo beans, or
really any other canned beans that you like, and just mix
it up with chopped garlic, olive oil, and just puree
it in your food processor. Prepare bean salads. Toss different varieties
together with fresh herbs and olive oil. Combine beans with pasta. I know that sounds strange,
but I’ve come across a lot of really good recipes
that combine those two. So, beans are great. If you have a problem with
the side effects of beans, there is a couple things
I sometimes look at. A lot of clients have
some sort of, I think, some kind of undiagnosed
issues with their gut, sometimes that are
related to the bacteria in our gut, the good versus bad. So I’ve actually seen
when we put people on really good quality
probiotics, that some of the side
effects that they would have with lactose intolerance, like
milk, and sometimes things with beans, or excess gas
production, gets much, much better once they regulate
that good versus bad bacteria. So that’s one thing I do. And then of course
they have some products that people can take,
along with the food, to help relieve the
production of gas. So, fish. Two to three servings
of fish weekly is good for you. The average North American
consumes just one serving a week. Which is kind of surprising, because I wouldn’t have
thought it was that high. When I talk to clients,
a lot of times, they’re not consuming
any fish at all. But that is what the
studies have shown. There’s some compelling evidence that fish can reduce
blood cholesterol levels, consuming just six ounces per
week of fatty fish may be enough to reduce the risk of dying from
heart disease by 36 percent. In one large trial, by
consuming one gram per day, which would be equivalent to
two to three 6 ounce servings of a fatty fish per week, that
gave enough omega 3 fatty acids over a three-and-a-half year
period, that individuals who had survived a heart
attack could lower their risk of dying from heart disease. So, these people in the study, they already had a heart attack
before they introduced this protocol, and then they
lowered their risk of dying from heart disease
by 25 percent. There is some conflicting
information about fish and fish oil out there,
and I was just talking about this earlier to Laura
that what we’re seeing is that there is a lot of studies
going on with genetics, right? And so, you know how you’ll see
studies where they’ll say, oh, this compelling evidence, look! How beneficial fish
oil is for, say, lowering triglyceride
levels or something. And then you’ll see some other
studies that come out, uh, nah, we didn’t get that result. Well, a lot of it comes down to
the genetics of the participants that are in those studies. So I always like
to use the example, why are eggs okay to eat now? You know, you used to, would say
oh limit your consumption to one or two eggs a week, and that’s
because there were some studies that showed that if you ate
more than two eggs a week, cholesterol levels
seemed to go up. But you know, it was a very
small subset of our population that that occurs in, and there
is a genetic variant there that causes that. So now we’re like,
for the vast majority of people, eggs are okay. So medicine, and nutritional
recommendations as time goes on will be very individualized
to the person right now. There is an area called
functional medicine, functional nutrition,
where they’ll look at from what we know
right now, genetics, and creating some individualized
guidelines for you. As research continues
with genetics, we’re going to see
that expand greatly. So with fish, what are some
of the beneficial components? Well, of course the
omega 3 fatty acids. One of the biggest things about
fish is that it lowers the risk of heartbeat abnormalities
that may result in a sudden heart
attack or death. So some people just
have a condition where the electrical activity of their heart is
a little abnormal. Maybe their cholesterol
levels are fine. Maybe they’re not getting
any kind of information that things are a little wacky, and that may not even be
something they can feel, that electrical abnormality. And that’s why sometimes
you’ll find someone that had a sudden heart attack, and it was just completely
off the radar, and it may have been due to an
electrical activity problem. So we know omega 3 fatty
acids lower the risk of that. It prolongs life
after a heart attack by improving heart function and reducing damage
from heart disease. It modestly lowers blood
pressure, thereby reducing risk of heart attack and stroke. It also acts as an
anti-inflammatory, preventing blood vessels
from becoming inflamed. So there are a lot of
good reasons to get into omega 3 fatty acids. It can reduce triglyceride
levels, and reduce the formation of atherosclerotic
plaque on arteries, by increasing HDL
and reducing LDL. And I’ll say this;
I’ve seen that benefit in some clients,
and not in others. So again, we believe that there
is a genetic reason for that. Ninety-nine percent of
Americans do not consume enough. It is probably one of the things
that I’ll focus on the most, especially when I’m
looking at food records and analyzing people’s diets. How much omega 3s are
actually coming in? Because the ratio that we
want, omega 6 fatty acids versus omega 3, is one to one. While America’s ratio
is 14 to 1 to 25 to 1. Which is vastly out
of balance, okay? So omega 6 fatty acids,
we get that through a lot of processed foods and a lot
of different types of oils. It’s just in abundant supply. And we do need some omega 6; we just go vastly
beyond what we do need. And we need to increase
our consumption of omega 3 fatty acids. So what about consuming
fish oil capsules? So particularly, if
you can eat fish, we always want you
to go to the food. So if you like fish, and you
can increase your consumption of fish, that’s what we
would like for you to do. Some people really
do not like fish. They can’t eat it. So what we’ll have them do is
buy some fish oil capsules, but only if it says distilled,
or molecularly distilled on that fish oil capsule. Because we don’t want you
getting in any contaminants like mercury or PCBs
that might be in some of the concentrated
fish oil capsules. One of the ones I recommend a
lot is just the over-the-counter Omega Red; it’s krill oil. There is some concern
about contaminants in fish, particularly mercury and PCBs. And what we found is
for most people the pros and cons of that, right? Because fish can be
a source of mercury. As long as you’re not
eating vast amounts of fish, we feel like the
benefits are going to definitely outweigh
the cons of eating fish. But we do focus on a few
groups, like pregnant women, nursing women, and young
children, trying to make sure that they don’t necessarily
eat more than about two or three servings of fatty
fish per week, because we feel like the levels of mercury might
be a little high after that. Can excessive intake of omega
3 fatty acids be dangerous? It can be. Omega 3 fatty acids are a
blood thinner, basically. So you can thin your
blood out too much. So you always want to look at
what are the recommendations? How much should I be taking? Which we’ll talk about, if
you’re going to take fish oil. So if you thin out
your blood too much, you can actually put yourself
at risk for hemorrhagic stroke, so kind of a bleeding out. And so particularly if
people are on blood thinners or say they take an
aspirin every day because their doctor told them
to, or they’re on something like warfarin, which is a
prescription blood thinner, definitely don’t take anything like this unless you talk
to your doctor first. Because if they want
you to take that, they’ll give you a better idea
of what the dosage should be. We do believe that
excessive amounts of omega 3 fatty acids
can adversely affect your immune system. We’ve seen some studies with
that, and so we’re talking about mega doses of
omega 3 fatty acids. So again, it’s really
important to look at what the dosage
recommendations are. Okay, so the target
amount of EPA or DHA, which are the omega 3 fatty
acids is 1.6 grams per day for men, and 1.1
per day for women. So, what if I just want to get
that through my food sources? Here’s a list of some food
sources right there for you. So you can see that some of
the salmon will have one gram, one and a half grams,
sardines, canned white tuna, the other thing is 1 tablespoon of ground flax seed
has about 1 gram. And it’s a different type
of omega 3 fatty acid. It’s called ALA. And it is more of a plant
source of omega 3 fatty acid. It’s good for you. I try to get clients
to get both in. A fish type source,
and then also a source that is from plant sources. Due to the potential mercury
content of canned tuna, some of the recommendations
really point to that you should not eat more
than about one six ounce can of tuna per week, and
try to buy albacore. It’s the richest tuna source
of omega 3 fatty acids. Where we see concern with
this type of thing is when people just get into
their monotonous diet. And I see that more
with men than women. Women just like their variety,
but men can really seem to eat the same thing
every single day, and that’s where something like
that can be concerning, right? Oh, I hear it’s a
great protein source, great omega 3 fatty acids; I’ll just throw a
6-ounce can in every day. And so what we want to do is
try to get multiple sources, different food sources
going on there. So, with the flax seed
that I talked about, flax seed is just slightly
larger than sesame seeds. It’s darker in color,
and very shiny. You know, maybe five years ago
if I talked about flax seed, a lot of people wouldn’t know
what I was talking about. Today, a lot of people know
what we’re talking about. Some of the beneficial
components, again, it’s over half the fat in
flax comes from omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids. It’s a good source of
soluble and insoluble fiber. And the ALA that I was talking
about is the omega 3 fatty acid that offers protective effects
against coronary heart disease and stroke, and it also
protects against hypertension. So there’s different ways
to consume flax seed, and what seems to be the
therapeutic dosage is 3 teaspoons to 3 tablespoons
a day. Sprinkle it on cereals,
into yogurt, on salads, put it into smoothies, you can
put it on just about anything. Also they do make flax seed
oil, which you always want to refrigerate after opening. And you can use that sparingly
in homemade salad dressings, and also in smoothies. Just be aware that it’s
not going to have all of the components,
because it’s an oil; so, a lot of those fibers
have been removed. So using ground flax
seed is a great choice. Use ground flax seed in
muffins, breads, pancakes. It basically adds kind of
like a nutty flavor to foods. I always say either purchase
it already ground up, ground flax seed, or you
can food process your own if you want to. If you have a little
coffee grinder that you want to use just for grinding the
flax seed, because they’re so small, that they
go through undigested. Basically our body has
a hard time breaking that down unless you’ve actually
milled it and ground it up. So walnuts, the FDA has
recognized actually the cholesterol lowering
properties of walnuts. And it’s also beneficial
in reducing the risk of heart disease and
inflammation, and that is due to high amounts of omega 3 fatty
acids, particularly that ALA, which is the plant source. And then also phytosterols. And phytosterols are
compounds that also appear to lower total cholesterol
levels. So, it looks like you only
need to consume a handful of walnuts a day to receive the
cholesterol-lowering benefits. The FDA, this is a statement
that they put out: Supportive but not conclusive research
shows that one and a half ounces of walnuts per day as part
of a low saturated fat, low cholesterol diet,
and not resulting in increased caloric
intake may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease. So, nuts have a lot of
calories in them, right? So that’s one of the reasons you
want to watch your portion size. Walnuts contain the highest
amounts of omega 3 fatty acids in one ounce, which is
usually about a handful in comparison to other nuts. So, as you see, 2.5 grams versus
less than .5 in other nuts. We have probably all heard about the Framingham
Nurse’s Health Study, where they’ve collected lots
and lots of information. They found that drinking
one daily glass of orange juice reduces the
risk of stroke by 25 percent. Many other studies have
confirmed similar benefits from regular consumption
of citrus fruit. Okay? Human clinical
trials showed that orange juice was
shown to elevate your HDL, which is your good cholesterol,
while lowering your LDL, which is your bad cholesterol. And citrus seems to have
a protective ability against that stroke. One glass daily lowers your risk
by 25 percent in healthy men, compared with 11
percent from juices that are made from other fruits. So why might that be? There are some beneficial
components. Of course, we all
know vitamin C, and orange juice is
the primary source of vitamin C in our diets. It’s a very powerful
antioxidant. Oranges also have
something called flavonoids. And these are powerful
antioxidants. Citrus flavonoids are found
in the fruit’s tissue. So it’s in their tissue, the
juice, the pulp, and the skin. So, it’s pretty much
found everywhere, therefore the whole fruit is
going to be much better to eat than actually to
drink the juice. Intake is inversely
associated with the incidence of heart attack and stroke. Hesperidin is one flavonoid that
we find in citrus that works to revive vitamin C after it’s
been quenched of free radicals. So we’ll be talking a little
bit more about free radicals, but basically what they are
is we have a lot of processes that go on in our body
that produce oxidation. And when we go exercise,
which is really good for us, oxidation occurs. And we want to have
antioxidants that help bring that oxidation level down. Free radicals are
produced during oxidation and what they do is that’s
where they go to your cells and create some of
the DNA damage that can eventually
lead to cancer. So once vitamin C is
used to clean up some of those free radicals, hesperidin from oranges
helps revive it so it can be useful again, that vitamin C. Why
is that important? Because vitamin C is something
that is water soluble, we have to get it
in on a daily basis. Our body doesn’t make it at
all, so we have to have it. So if we can replenish that
supply that is always good. Pectin is the dietary fiber
that is found in oranges, and that is very effective in
lowering cholesterol levels. It is present in large amounts in the white lining
of citrus fruits. And then there is folate;
again, we talked about that. It’s a B vitamin that
plays an important role in lowering blood concentrations
of that homocysteine. Folate works with other B
vitamins, like B-12 and B-6 to remove that homocysteine
from our circulatory system. What we’re finding with some
of the genetic testing is that particularly
with B vitamins, we’re seeing some
variants in genetic testing that affects people’s ability
to use B vitamins well. And so that’s an area
of research right now. And there’s evidence that increased folate intake can
actually improve heart health in people who have already
developed heart disease. Now, are vitamin C
supplements helpful? Well, your body doesn’t
really know the difference between the vitamin C
that comes in through food versus the ascorbic acid
that is in vitamin C pills. But the problem is that
there is the polyphenols. Remember, I said there’s
all kinds of antioxidants that are actually
in the whole food that work together
to prevent disease? So, what we find is that
actually getting that vitamin C from your food source,
the polyphenols that are in that food source,
actually magnify the ability of that food to work for you. So some tips for consumption. Citrus fruit will not
ripen after picking. So, be aware of that. The heavier and smaller the
fruit, and the thinner the skin, the more juice it contains. Eight ounces of orange juice
contains 80 to 140 milligrams of vitamin C. Just so that you
know your daily requirement is somewhere around 90. Okay? So you see 8
ounces of orange juice, you get your vitamin
C in just like that. I get a little concerned if
people take massive amounts of vitamin C for a
couple of reasons. One, it puts you at
risk for kidney stones, because your body just
becomes it’s very acidic, and filters through
your kidneys, and you can develop
some kidney stones. The other thing, too, is
when you inundate your cells with one major antioxidant
it pushes out room for others to act on the same cells. So, that’s one of the reason
we don’t want drastically high amounts of vitamin C coming in. Orange juice stays fresh for
two to four weeks after opening, and if you want to
revitalize it, you can actually squeeze a lemon
into your orange juice container if it’s been sitting there for
say two weeks, and you want to just make it a little
bit, the vitamin C to kind of refresh a little bit. And also citrus marmalade
can be a good choice of vitamin C as well. Eat an orange, tangerine,
or a clementine daily. Some people add them
into their smoothies. Add orange segments
to a spinach salad. Sprinkle grapefruit
halves with brown sugar and broil it for a dessert. Add orange juice to
your fruit smoothie, or again orange segments. Keep some orange
and/or lemon zest, and if you don’t know what zest
is, it’s when you just kind of grate the outer layer of
your fruit, and you can put that into cakes and cookies. So we do believe so much
in the effect of oranges that we say eat something
citrus like that once a day. That would be great
if you can do that. Some beneficial components of spinach is there is a
compound called betaine, which plays a role, again, in
that homocysteine metabolism that we’ve been talking
about, and also carotenoids. When we think of carotenoids,
you think like beta-carotene, you think of carrot
juice usually right? It’s really orange. There is just so much
chlorophyll in spinach that it masks the color of the
beta-carotene that’s in it, but it’s actually really
high in carotenoids. And this helps protect your
artery walls from damage. Half a cup of cooked spinach
contains more than the RDA for beta-carotene
than you would need. So, I get a little – in debates,
you know, in debates with people who feel like you can’t get
your nutrients from your food, because you start looking
at these small amounts that you have to have out
of different food sources, and you definitely can meet
your nutritional requirements. Beta-carotene converts into
vitamin A, and then it works with vitamin C to prevent
oxidized cholesterol from building up in
your blood vessel walls. Now one cup of fresh spinach,
like fresh spinach leaves, contains substantial vitamin
A and about 11% of your RDA of vitamin C. It’s very
high; spinach is very high, in what we call those
anti-hypertensive nutrients. So, it helps with
blood pressure. High in potassium, calcium,
magnesium, folate, polyphenols, fiber, and a trace amount of measurable omega 3 fatty
acids is actually found in spinach as well. And, of course, it’s low
in sodium, high in folate. So, spinach is great. You see a lot of spinach around, because there’s a
smoothie revolution, right? Everybody is doing
their smoothies. Some tips for consumption, it’s
sold both loose, and in bags. The bagged greens, I think
we’ve all noticed this, they can deteriorate very
quickly after you open them, so they’re only going
to keep usually three to four days after purchase. Also, your spinach
should always smell sweet, and the leaves should
be crisp and intact. Don’t wash before storing,
otherwise it’s going to deteriorate faster, and
then wrap loose spinach in paper towels, and
store in your crisper. That is the best way to
store it for longevity. You have to realize, too,
that we have no idea how long that food has been sitting
in the supermarket, right? And then we take it home, and
sometimes we may not get to it for a couple of days, so it goes down in nutrient
quality day by day. So the fresher you
can use the best. Also, that’s where we sometimes
kind of send you to using some of the frozen vegetables because
they’re frozen at harvest; they have a high
nutrient quality. You just have to make sure
you’re not overcooking them. Just try to kind
of warm them up, keep them still slightly
crispy, slightly cooked through, and they’ll retain
more vitamins that way. So, wash before serving. Don’t soak. Instead, dip, swish and rinse. If you’ve ever soaked spinach and you see the water
turns green? A lot of those vitamins
just went into the water and you’re going to lose them. Just try to kind of dip
it, swish and rinse. Cooking actually
liberates the carotenoids, and makes them more available,
so that’s why cooked spinach or even throwing it into just
like your stir fries and things of that nature is good. Also boosts lutein, which
is good for eyesight, but heat degrades
vitamin C and folate, so try to use both
forms if you can. Have some cooked spinach. Have some fresh spinach. You can layer in a
lasagna, steam and serve, sprinkle with fresh lemon juice
and grated Parmesan cheese. Add a handful to your soups. Dress with balsamic
vinegar dressing and sprinkle with sesame seeds. Add to an omelet. Shred into tacos and burritos. When you have kids, a lot of
times you find yourself hiding that stuff in little places, and they never notice
the difference. Now, remember I talked
about the DASH diet? Dietary Approaches
to Stop Hypertension. I get, actually, mad when
someone gets referred to me for high blood pressure, and
maybe they’ve been on medication for a year or two already, and
no one has ever talked to them about their diet, particularly
the DASH diet because it’s so effective at lowering
blood pressure. As an intern, when
I was in school, we all would try
different things, and one of the things we tried
was, let’s do the DASH diet for a little bit, make
sure we’re getting in all these components
that we’re talking about. And even though my blood
pressure was normal, mine still lowered, actually,
following the DASH diet. So what is the crux
of the DASH diet? Now, you’ll find some people
have taken it upon themselves to write, like recipe books
and things of that nature, that kind of give you some ideas
of how to use the DASH diet. It’s a free diet. You can go on the Internet
and just Google DASH diet. You’ll have everything, a
bunch of information will come up about the DASH diet. So basically the
crux of it is to get in at least four fruit servings, at least four vegetable
servings, and two to three low-fat
dairy servings a day. This is the crux of it. This is the foundation. That’s three products
right there. They work together to
lower blood pressure. And in the initial studies,
they wondered if fruits and vegetables and maybe calcium
supplements might do the trick. So, they tried that,
did not work. So we know that it’s a
synergistic effect of what’s in your fruit, your vegetables,
and the dairy servings that are working together. So, even if somebody
wasn’t following the rest of the recommendation, like
seven to eight grains servings, up to 3 ounces servings of lean
meat, maybe they’re not getting in the nuts, the seeds, and
the beans per week that’s also recommended. If they just focus on getting
at least four, the four-four and two to three of the dairy,
that will lower blood pressure. Right there. So, it sounds like a lot, right? But do you know what
a fruit serving is? A fruit serving is just
a piece of fruit, right? It’s also considered to be six
ounces of juice, so if you put that in your smoothie,
that’s a fruit serving. A fourth cup of dried fruit. You can use dried fruit
for the DASH diet. It’s considered a fruit serving. A cup of diced melon
would be a fruit serving. The vegetable servings, though, half a cup of cooked
vegetables is one serving. So, when we eat cooked
vegetables, typically what you will see is
people will usually eat a little bit closer to a cup
of cooked vegetables. So, say you have a cup of cooked
vegetables at lunch and a cup at dinner, you just met your
requirement, right there, for the vegetable servings. If you don’t eat cooked
vegetables and you eat more like salad, it takes
two cups of the salad to equal one vegetable serving. Then for your dairy servings,
it’s basically a cup of milk, or a cup of yogurt, or 1
ounce of lower fat cheese. Okay? So, I can’t emphasize
how effective this is. And again, 10 to 12 points of lowering blood
pressure is seen with that. And so big believer in this one. And then the rest of the
recommendations that are added to this are because these
components have some of the same minerals in
them that we’re finding that work synergistically, so
like nuts, seeds, and beans. If you can add that in on a weekly basis,
that helps even more. Okay. So tea. Now, there is solid evidence that tea consumption
is associated with lowered heart disease
risk and stroke risk. So what we found is that tea
drinkers had only two-thirds of as much coronary artery
damage, and only one-third as much cerebral, so
brain artery damage than coffee drinkers. Male deaths from coronary
artery disease were reduced by 40 percent among
those who drank one or more cups of tea daily. And then a Harvard study showed that there was a 44 percent
lower risk of heart attack in people who drank at
least one cup daily. There’s a definitive
inverse relationship between tea consumption and
what we call those homocysteine levels, again, and it plays
a role in keeping the lining of your vessels plaque free. One study showed
that tea consumption in the year before a
heart attack is associated with a lower mortality
following the heart attack, and in those studies, it was
approximately two cups a day. What we know that is in tea that is very beneficial is
something called catechins. Animal studies show that these
catechins lower your cholesterol levels, especially
your bad cholesterol, and then you’ve got
the antioxidants. Green and black tea both have
been shown to be more effective against the common free radical
than all the vegetables tested. One study, actually, there is
an African village, two villages that are 40 miles apart, and their lifestyles are
very, very, very similar. And I forgot to mention
this about fish– what they do is they eat a
ton of, one of them eats a ton of fish and the other
one does more of a kind of plant-based diet,
and what they found with the fish eaters is that they were significantly
lower cholesterol levels, and their lifestyle
levels were the same. And what they’re finding
with tea is the same; when we have people who
come from like say China, where they drink a lot of tea. They come here, and they
adopt our lifestyle, but they still keep
the tea in, right? What they’re finding is
their incidences of some of our disease states is much
lower when they have the tea in. If they come to our country
and they don’t have the tea in, so they really adopt our
lifestyle pretty fully, they very quickly catch
up to the same incidences of cancer, and heart disease. So, the recommendations
for tea consumption is one to three cups daily
for health benefits. Greater protection as your
consumption increases, actually. Brewed tea has more health
benefits than instant tea, and tea bags are as potent
as loose tea, possibly more, because tea bags, there’s
greater surface area, they’ve been pulverized more,
there’s greater surface area for the polyphenols to
come out into the fluid. And you should brew your tea
for at least three minutes, and squeeze that tea bag after
it’s been brewed, and get a lot of that polyphenols
out of there. So, we believe, too,
that black tea is just as effective as green. Green has been studied
widely because it’s consumed in many countries that
have low rates of cancer and heart disease, so
they studied green tea, but they’re finding that they
believe black tea is going to have pretty much
the same results. So tomatoes. There’s ample evidence that they
play a role in reducing risk for cardiovascular disease. If you’ve ever heard
of lycopene, that’s a powerful antioxidant. And it’s in tissues– when
it’s in tissues of men who have suffered heart
attacks who compared with those who hadn’t suffered heart
attacks, what they find is those that had heart attacks had a
lot lower levels of lycopene. One study compared carotenoid
levels among patients and found lycopene to
be the most protective against a heart attack. So what lycopene
does is it combines with other powerful
antioxidants, again, to neutralize free radicals that would otherwise damage your
cells, and your cell membranes. So, it reduces the
potential for inflammation, which reduces the
severity and progression of your atherosclerosis,
which is the plaque on the inside of the arteries. Also, tomatoes are rich in
potassium, niacin, vitamin B6, folate, which is a great
heart healthy combination, which helps lower that homocysteine level
and blood pressure. Now, processed tomatoes
are actually of more benefit than
fresh, right? So there’s a few things that
sometimes people, you know, don’t realize that heat or processing actually
increases the nutrient quality of certain fruits
and vegetables, and tomatoes is one
of those things. So, actually ketchup has
a lot of lycopene in it. Any canned tomato
products, pasta sauce, are very high in lycopene. One of the tricks that you
can do at the bottom is if you cook your fresh
tomatoes, really briefly, to get them warm, it causes
the cell walls to burst, and more lycopene is
actually released. So it’s going to be
higher in antioxidants. Order pizza with extra sauce. Saute cherry tomatoes in olive
oil and herbs, and then toss over pasta, or serve
as a side dish. Use sun dried tomatoes
in sandwiches. Toss a can of diced tomatoes
into your soups and stews. Get — just get it
in where you can. And just remember that the
processed version is going to be higher. So, even if you don’t
want to eat– because we’re telling
you not to eat as much processed foods, right? But even if you can heat those
tomatoes up just a little bit. Now soy is very,
very, very effective at lowering cholesterol in
those that have high levels. So the FDA says when
consumed as part of a diet low in saturated fat
and cholesterol, it can reduce your risk
of coronary heart disease. In October 1999, the FDA began
allowing soy food manufacturers to actually make health
claims on their packages, because the evidence
is so strong. Soy is derived from soybeans, one of the most widely consumed
sources of protein worldwide. Some of the studies have
shown that consumption of soy protein results
in significant reductions in cholesterol, and 9
percent, LDL cholesterol by 12, which is your bad, and
then triglycerides by 10. We don’t really know how it’s
working, why it works like that. But we do know they’ve
actually kind of put the particular amount. So someone, you know, one of the
things when someone comes to me for counseling saying
I really have high LDL, help me try to get that down,
I’m going to give them a lot of information, but they may
not want to try soy, right? So, there are some other
things we’ll focus on, but it is very effective, so
those that are open minded to it, I can tell you,
it’s very, very effective. Soybeans can be eaten
whole, fresh or frozen. Edamame. Or dried. Soy nuts. And the ideal
amount is 25 grams per day for cholesterol lowering
ability of soy. So, when you hear
these recommendations, we want 25 grams every
day, not just a couple of days a week, right? You want every day. So tofu has about 18
to 20 grams, 4 ounces. So some people will
use that in stir fries. They have the silk tofu,
which is more of the– it’s not hard; it’s
more liquidy. They’ll put that in their
smoothies to get that tofu in there, to get
that soy protein. One soy burger, 10 to 12 grams. A cup of soy milk 11 grams. A soy protein bar 14 grams. A fourth cup of roasted
soy nuts 15 grams. You can check the protein
content on the label, actually, and if you’re eating
a soy product, all that protein is usually
going to be soy based, right? Now, what about processed
versus real soy? You know? So when I can, I
steer people toward using tofu, soy nuts, edamame,
that type of stuff, because it’s less processed. Because there is
always controversy with the processed
versions of everything. And so right now, processed soy,
they’re like, oh, I don’t know. You know the GMOs that are
in it, all kinds of stuff. What’s the effect
on that going to be? And right now, there’s nothing
definitive enough for me to be able to make a
specific recommendation. I just always try to get you to do the less processed
that you can. And it’s– that’s always
going to be healthier for you. People that already have
existing thyroid issues, a lot of times we
don’t have them do soy, because it actually can block
the effect of your medication, and so make your thyroid
condition actually worse. I’ve never seen any
information that I can come to– I know a lot of people say
soy kills your thyroid gland. Some people, you know, there’s
a lot of nutrition information out there and where
people get it. I know Jillian Michaels is
a big one, don’t eat soy; it will kill your thyroid
gland like it did Oprah. That’s what she says. I heard her say it
like 50 million times. There is actually no evidence
that soy damages thyroid glands. People that have existing
thyroid disease, though, sometimes have to limit that. So tips for consumption. Add soy protein powder into
shakes, purchase dried cereals and breads containing
soy, and no, soy sauce is not a good source.

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