Integumentary system – Anatomical terminology for healthcare professionals | Kenhub

Integumentary system – Anatomical terminology for healthcare professionals | Kenhub

Epidermis, squamous cells, anatomical terminology
– maybe she’s born with it! Maybe, it’s Kenhub. Who knew studying Anatomy could make you look
younger? Okay, I lie. It doesn’t. If anything, studying anatomical terminology
is guaranteed to add more than a few stress lines to your otherwise youthful face. Trust me. Well, they say prevention is better than the
cure, then give Kenhub a try before it’s too late, and welcome to the eleventh episode
of our series “Anatomical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals” – forever young
with the integumentary system. So if you have been following the past ten
episodes of this series, you will be more than familiar with our method of taking life-drainingly
complicated anatomical terminology and breaking it down into smaller, more manageable parts. Doing this helps us build up an armory of
word parts known as prefixes, roots, and suffixes which we can use again to identify new terms. So I guess the first thing you’re wondering
is why on earth is the skin known as the integumentary system? Well, the term comes from the Latin integumentum,
which means “covering or shields” which makes sense giving that our skin protects
the body from infection, dehydration, UV radiation, and injury. So, let’s waste no time and take a look at
some common root words related to the skin beginning first with derm- or derm/o- with
the O at the end or dermato- which comes from the Greek word derma that means “skin.” I’m sure you’re familiar with the terms dermatology
or dermatologists. Of course, for many Greek root words, we often
have a Latin equivalent and in this case, we’re talking about the root words cut- or
cutane- or cutane/o- with the O at the end, both of which also refer directly to the skin. We’ll see this root most often in action
in the term cutaneous. For example, cutaneous vasculitis is an acute
condition which causes inflammation of the blood vessels of the skin. And, remember, everyone you can reinforce
your learning of all these root words and suffixes we meet today by making simple flashcards
during your study time. Just add the word elements on the front and
the explanations on the back. Register for free with and make
your flashcards even more effective by adding some of our awesome anatomical illustrations
found in our Atlas. Next up is kerat- or kerat/o- with the O at
the end which refers to the tough keratinized outermost layer of the skin and comes from
the Greek word for “horn.” There are two important terms which come from
this root which are good to be aware of. The first is keratoderma, which is a group
of disorders which results in either diffuse or localized excessive formation of keratin
in the skin. The other is keratosis which is another group
of diseases that cause hard growths on the skin like warts or calluses. If you look deeper into the skin now, we might
be familiar with the term melanin which is the pigment that gives our skin, hair, and
eyes their color. Terms related to this pigment or the cells
which produce it are known as melanocytes, unsurprisingly often contain the root word
melan- or melan/o- with the O at the end. For instance, a melanoma describes a tumor
arising from abnormal proliferation of melanocytes. We’re going to go deeper again and let’s
briefly look at a root word that no one wants to know which is adipo-. It comes from the Latin word adeps which means
“fat.” You’ll see it pop up in lots of forms perhaps
as the most dreaded adipometer or skin fold caliper. It’s used to measure the thickness of skin
in order to calculate the amount of subcutaneous fat we’re carrying. You’ll probably be more aware of the Greek
cousin of this root, lipo-, which is featured in well-known terms like liposuction which,
of course, needs no definition. Continuing along our journey, let’s look at
two rather obscure root words which are hidro-, not to be confused with hydro-, and sudor. Both of these terms refer to sweat or the
sweat glands. Hyperhidrosis and sudoresis are both names
for disorders which result in excessive perspiration or sweating. An alternative root word which is related
to sweating is diaphor- or diaphor/o- with the O at the end as in diaphoresis which refers
to perspiration especially when profuse as a symptom of a disease or a side effect of
drugs. If you’re familiar with the anatomy of the
skin, you’ll know it contains many sebaceous glands which produce sebum that helps to keep
the skin moisturized. Unsurprisingly, terms related to these glands
often contain the root word seb- or seb/o- with the O at the end. For instance, seborrhea is a condition of
excessive secretion of sebum which forms greasy scales on the skin. When it affects our scalp, we would refer
to this condition as dandruff. The topic of dandruff brings us nicely along
to our next word roots which is tricho- or trichi which refers to hair. For example, trichodystrophy is the condition
of having malnourished hair often resulting in hair loss. And, finally, the last of our root words for
now is onych- or onych/o- with the O at the end, which comes from the Greek onyx which
means “nail.” Did you know, for example, that onychophagia
is the clinical term for biting your nails? With that in mind now, let’s move on now to
some more practical terminology which you might come across when studying or working
in clinical practice. Many diseases are characterized by changes
in the quality of skin or by various types of lesions or outbreaks. And when it comes to characterizing these
lesions, there are many terms which provide specific detail to the condition of the skin
observed. Let’s take a look at some of the most common
examples. A cyst is a small sac or pouch underneath
the skin which contains fluid, semisolid matter, or even air. Then a fissure is a small crack or break in
the skin most often seen in thick skin like the sole of your foot. A macule is a discolored lesion which is relatively
flat to touch. For example, freckles and moles. A papule, on the other hand, is a solid raised
lesion on the surface of the skin with no visible fluid that often forms as part of
a rash. A plaque describes a larger flat or slightly
raised patch on the skin which is larger than one centimeter in diameter. These are common in disorders like psoriasis. A polyp is a common mushroom-type growth which
extends from the skin. They’re commonly referred to as skin tags
and often form in regions where the skin forms creases or rubs together like the neck, armpits,
or groin. A pustule, as the name suggests, is a raised
area or blister of the skin formed by pus accumulation such as those seen in acne. An ulcer is an open sore or area of disintegration
of the skin which results from injury, poor circulation, or pressure. Now, pressure ulcers are necrotic skin lesions
formed where the body rests on skin covering bony projections. And, finally, a wheal is a smooth elevation
that is red and sometimes itchy, for example, hives, or it can also describe the mark left
on the skin by a blow or pressure. Now let’s move on to the final section of
our tutorial today and take a look at the selection of some of the most common dermatological
disorders which you might encounter. First up is alopecia which to you and I is
the clinical term for hair loss, which can occur due to many reasons such as male pattern
baldness, fungal infections, or even induced by drug treatments or illness. Another common skin condition which we are
all familiar with is pruritus which is the clinical term for intense itchiness, usually
occurs as a symptom of another disorder, for example, skin disease, allergy, infection,
liver disease, or renal dysfunction. I’m sure you’re more than familiar with the
term eczema, however, let’s learn a little about what it means. It’s a generic term for inflammatory conditions
of the skin which are chiefly described as causing redness, itching, and outbreak of
lesions which may ooze or become encrusted. Another similar condition which we mentioned
earlier is psoriasis. This is a chronic inherited condition which
is characterized by vivid red macules, papules, and plaques covered in silvery layered scales. Perhaps a less well known skin disorder is
vitiligo which is a progressive condition resulting in the loss of melanocytes that
give color to the skin. This results in white patches amongst normally
pigmented skin. Now let’s look briefly at two viral conditions
which are well known to affect the skin. The first is rubella which you might know
as German measles. It’s characterized by a fine red rash which
begins at the face and neck and rapidly moves across the whole body within 24 hours lasting
for about three days. The other viral disease we’re going to look
at is varicella which is, of course, the dreaded chickenpox. This is characterized by a spotty macular
rash which progresses into blister-like vesicles filled with clear fluid. After a day or two, they become yellow and
pustular before drying up and forming a crust. It’s caused by herpes zoster virus which
also causes shingles. To finish up our clinical disorders of the
skin, let’s mention two important terms in relation to skin cancer. Basal cell carcinoma is a malignant tumor
of the basal cell layer of the epidermis. It is the most common type of skin cancer
and is slow growing and, most importantly, it does not generally spread. Squamous cell carcinoma, on the other hand,
is a malignant tumor of the squamous epithelial cells of the epidermis. This type of skin cancer may metastasize to
lymph nodes. And that is it, we’ve reached the end of this
tutorial. You’re almost at the end of exploring the
terminology of all the systems of the body. Just one system left to go. Now it is time for you to test your knowledge
on the terms we have learned today by trying to decipher the meaning of the following words
in our five-term challenge. Be sure to share your answers in the comments
below. And that’s a wrap for this tutorial. I hope you enjoyed learning about the terminology
of the skin. Please be sure to subscribe to our channel
if you haven’t already and also be sure to check out our website to learn
all about the anatomical makeup of the skin and related structures. Remember to join us also for the final episode
of our series where we will be looking at the terminology of the lymphatic system. See you next time!


  • Kenhub - Learn Human Anatomy says:

    Hi guys! Was this fun or what? Let us know what you enjoyed in this video, as well as your answers to our five-word-challenge in the comments below. But wait! You're not done yet. There is still a lot you can do to learn this topic. Check out our related articles and atlas sections on this topic:
    Once you go through that, you'll truly be able to call yourself a master on the anatomical terminology of the skin. Have fun learning!

  • Subham Meher says:

    Good work guys..

    Viewers please have a look on my channel for blogs and medical contents …and if you like please do subscribe

  • Sharon Glenn says:

    Nooooo I loved this series! Would absolutely hate it ending😪

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