HIV and AIDS: Infection Stages, Pathology and Treatment, Animation

HIV and AIDS: Infection Stages, Pathology and Treatment, Animation


HIV for human immunodeficiency virus is
a virus that attacks the immune system weakening the body’s ability to fight
infections progressive destruction of the immune system eventually leads to
its failures a state known as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or AIDS when
the body is incapable of defending itself from common infections HIV
targets a specific group of cells called cd4 plus cells cd4 is a receptor
expressed on the surface of many immune cells including T helper cells
macrophages and dendritic cells where it is essential for cell communication and
hence normal function of the immune system HIV hijacks this receptor to gain
access to the cells apart from cd4 receptor another factor called a
co-receptor is also required for HIV entry and infection several Co receptors
have been identified in different cell types with cxcr4 and ccr5 being the most
common cxcr4 is expressed on many t-cells but usually not on macrophages
and is used by t tropic strains of HIV ccr5 is expressed on macrophages some
t-cells and is used by M tropic strains some HIV strains use ccr5 to infect
initially but evolved to use cxcr4 later during disease progression viruses that
can use both Co receptors are called dual tropic some people are born with a
deletion in ccr5 and are substantially resistant to HIV infection HIV life
cycle starts with attachment of an HIV envelope protein gp120 to cd4 receptor
and co-receptor followed by fusion of HIV with host cell the virus then
injects its content HIV RNA and several enzymes into the cell one of these
enzymes known as reverse transcriptase is used to convert HIV RNA into DNA an
important step that would allow the virus to integrate into host cell DNA
once in the new HIV enzyme integrase inserts the viral
DNA into the host DNA at this point the virus may adopt either latent or active
infection inactive infection HIV uses the host machinery to produce multiple
copies of its RNA and proteins which are then assembled into new virus particles
ready to infect more cd4 cells in latent infection the virus remains integrated
in host DNA and may lie dormant for years forming a latent HIV reservoir
which can reactivate and infect again at a later time HIV is transmitted through
infected body fluids most commonly via s contacts shared contaminated
needles and mother to child during childbirth or through breastfeeding it
is not transmitted through air or casual contacts diagnosis is by detection of
viral protein RNA proviral DNA or antibody produced against HIV there are
three stages of HIV infection the acute stage generally develops within a couple
of weeks after a person is infected with HIV during this time patients may
experience flu-like symptoms HIV multiplies rapidly resulting in high
viral load in the blood and increased risks of transmission the chronic stage
also called clinical latency is usually asymptomatic HIV continues to multiply
but at much slower speeds patients may not have any symptoms but they can still
spread HIV to others without treatment the disease usually progresses to AIDS
within two to ten years AIDS is the final stage of HIV infection as the
immune system is failing the body can’t fight off common diseases and
opportunistic infections take hold AIDS is diagnosed when cd4 cell count is
lower than 200 per microliter or if certain opportunistic infections are
present there is currently no cure but treatment with antiretroviral therapy
can slow down progression to AIDS and reduce transmission risks antiretroviral
drugs are classified based on their ability to interfere with certain
stages of HIV lifecycle accordingly there are entry and fusion inhibitors
reverse transcriptase inhibitors integrase inhibitors and protease
inhibitors these drugs however cannot reach the latent virus which hides out
safely in healthy T cells that may reactivate and infect again this is the
major reason why HIV infection is not curable with current available
treatments

11 Comments

  • Ramchandra Suthar says:

    Very nice explanation

  • MAJOW STAR says:

    The reason why so high in some areas and not in others is a topic nobody wants to explore properly or even try to fix.

  • zahi khalid says:

    Nice explanation

  • Alila Medical Media says:

    If this video is helpful to you, please consider supporting our next projects. As a token of our appreciation, we also offer early video access and free image downloads in return, please check us out here: https://www.patreon.com/AlilaMedicalMedia

  • Seline Kilonzo says:

    Hi, how long does it take for someone to test positive after the infection?

  • 1 1 says:

    Why is it natural metabolism cannot slowly eliminate infected cells if drugs already stop viruses from replicating? Is it because the speed of white cell being eliminated is slower than new cells getting infected?

  • Rudy Garcia says:

    Agree 100 percent. Nice video. I only have 1 question why can't the body detect Hiv during the early phase or upon entry? I have a theory which could be extremely wrong- because Hiv is so unique- the body of course can detect Hiv. However during early immune response Hiv can easily elude this by giving up its receptor sites( gp 120). The immune system would stop attacking the virus because it only attacks virus with antennas or gp 120. In the absence of gp 120 it would shut down. Then Hiv would grow back its gp 120 if threatened again it would give it up again. The process would go on and on until it reaches its target tells. By then it's check mate.banyway it's just a theory which is probably wrong anyway. I just wish people with Hiv aids will be healed soonest.

  • tylor frnzy says:

    Hurray engineered antibodys ND stem cells can kill this devastating virus . And using natural herbs can make our antibodys stronger ND make weaker to virus

  • Alex S says:

    Great Video!

  • jeffery miller says:

    Don't freak out Jesus and herbs can cure it . nature is the answer with faith in God

  • Mariela T. Fuentes says:

    These are simply the best videos and medical content I have ever found. Thank you so much.

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