7 Dhatus and Ojas in Ayurveda Quick Interactive Description

7 Dhatus and Ojas in Ayurveda Quick Interactive Description


Hello friends, The National Library of Ayurveda Medicine is pleased to present a new episode on Ayurveda. The present release is part of a video lecture series prepared for the education of Ayurveda literature in accordance with the academic curriculum of Ayurveda studies in India. My name is Dr Sumit Kesarkar and I will be your host throughout this video which explains DHATUS,the building blocks of the human body according to Ayurveda. Rasa dhatu can be correlated to the Lymphatic and Capillary system in the human body as per modern parameters. Rasa dhatu produces 2 accessory tissues or Upadhatus STANYA or Breast milk and RAJAH or Menstrual blood. Rasa produces a waste product in form of Kapha. Here the term Kapha means the visible form of Kapha dosha as phlegm & mucus & not the Dosha Kapha. Rasa has a predominance of Kapha Dosha Rasa has a predominance of the element Aapah Rasa’s main function is described by Acharya Vagbhat in the book Ashtanghrudaya as PREENAM which means nourishment of the body. The pathology of Rasa dhatu can be understood through the symptoms when its proportions increase or decrease in the body. The symptoms of Increase of Rasa dhatu are described in Ashtanghrudaya In brief, the symptoms of increase of Rasa dhatu are similar to the increase of Kapha dosha. They include Excessive salivation, Lethargy, Heaviness, Pallor, Hypothermia or feeling of cold, Shortness of breath, Coughing & Excessive sleep. The symptoms of decrease of Rasa dhatu are described in Ashtanghrudaya as The body dry & rough, It causes tiredness, The person feels lack of energy Decrease of Rasadhatu dries up bodily fluids leading to Dehydration and Malaise. The person also develops Intolerance to sound. Rakta dhatu can be correlated to the circulatory system or blood in the human body as per modern parameters. Rakta dhatu produces 2 accessory tissues or Upadhatus SIRA-DHAMANI which could be co-related to blood vessels including arteries & veins & KANDARA which could be co-related to capillaries. Rakta Dhatu produces waste product in form of Pitta. Here the term Pitta dosha means the visible form of Pitta which includes digestive enzymes like bile. Rakta has a predominance of Pitta Dosha. Rakta has a predominance of the element Agni followed by Aapah. Rakta’s main function is described by Acharya Vagbhat in the book Ashtanghrudaya as JEEVAN, which means vitality. Ayurveda texts mention that Rakta Dhatu carries the life force or PRANA. The pathology of Rakta dhatu can be understood through the symptoms when its proportions increase or decrease in the body. The symptoms of Increase of Rakta dhatu are described in Ashtanghrudaya as In brief the symptoms include Disorders like Herpes, Spleen disorders,Abscess, Skin disorders like acne, pimples, psoriasis, etc Inflammatory disorders similar to gout, Hemorrhagic disorders, Tumors, Jaundice Pigmentation of skin, Indigestion, Syncope, Redness of eyes, Skin & Urine The symptoms of a decrease of Rakta dhatu are described in Ashtanghrudays as In brief the symptoms include Desire to eat sour foods and desire for cool environments. Development of circulatory malfunctions in blood vessels like varicose veins, Numbness, Burning sensations etc. In addition the body is dry & rough. MAMSA dhatu can be correlated to the MUSCULAR system in the human body as per modern parameters. MAMSA dhatu produces 2 accessory tissues or Upadhatus They are VASA which can be co-related to Muscle sheaths & SHAT TWACHA or the 6 types of Human Skin as described in Ayurveda MAMSA produces waste products in the form of KHAMALA, which are excretions from EARS & NOSE. MAMSA has a predominance of Kapha Dosha. MAMSA has a predominance of the element PRITHVI, followed BY Aapah. MAMSA Dhatus main function is described by Acharya Vagbhat in the book Ashtanghrudaya as LEPAN which means WRAPPING OR ENVELOPING THE BODY. One may wonder how muscle tissue can exist before bone since bone is wrapped within the muscles. There is no area in the body where bone exists without muscle, but there are muscles that exist without bones. A couple of examples include the heart and tongue. Both contain the first two dhatus of Rasa and Rakta but do not need bones to function. The pathology of MAMSA dhatu can be understood through the symptoms when its proportions increase or decrease in the body. The symptoms of the Increase of MAMSA dhatu are described in Ashtanghrudaya as The symptoms include Tumors, Enlargement of Glands Muscle enlargements prominently near cheeks and abdomen. The symptoms of decrease of MAMSA dhatu are described in Ashtanghrudaya as In brief the symptoms include Heaviness in the eyes, Drooping Muscle wasting, loss of muscle mass observed prominently around cheeks & abdomen. MEDA dhatu can be correlated to the Fat tissue or Lipids in the human body as per modern parameters. MEDA dhatu produces 1 accessory tissues or Upadhatu called SNAYU, which can be correlated to ligaments in the body. MEDA produces waste product in form of SWEDA or sweat. Sweat due to its importance in human pathology is also considered to be of the three prime excrements or Malas of human body the other two being PURISH or stools and MUTRA or urine. Meda has a predominance of Kapha Dosha. Meda has a predominance of the element Aapah followed by Prithvi Meda main function is described by Acharya Vagbhat in Ashtanghrudaya as SNEHAN, which means Lubrication. Meda has the action of lubrication and it wraps around muscle and helps keep the body warm. The pathology of Meda dhatu can be understood through the symptoms when its proportions increase or decrease in the body. The symptoms of Increase of Meda dhatu are described in Ashtanghrudaya as In brief the symptoms include Weakness,Dyspnoea, Getting easily tired, Gasping Obesity, Fat deposits at breast and abdomen The symptoms of decrease of Medadhatu are described in Ashtanghrudaya as In brief the symptoms include Excessive dreams, Enlargement of spleen & Skinny complexion Meda is the most Inclusive Dhatu described thus far & is on the exterior of all the previous dhatus. This trend will now reverse as the tissues will work their way back inward to the body. ASTHI dhatu can be correlated to the Skeletal system inclusive of teeth in the human body as per modern parameters. ASTHI dhatu does not produce any accessory tissue. However Sharangdhara samhita consideres DANTA or teeth to be an Upadhatu of Asthi ASTHI produces waste products in form of NAKHA or nails, & ROMA-KESHA or body hair ASTHI has a predominance of Vata Dosha. ASTHI has a predominance of the element Prithvi followed by Aakasha, though certain authors also consider Vaayu as one of the predominant Mahabhuta. ASTHI’s main function is described by Acharya Vagbhat in the book Ashtanghrudaya as DHARAN which means to be the foundation of the human body. Bones form the structural integrity of human body. The pathology of ASTHI dhatu can be understood through the symptoms when its proportions increase or decrease in the body. The symptoms of Increase of ASTHI dhatu are described in Ashtanghrudaya as In brief the symptoms are ADHYASTHI which means hypertrophy of bone & ADHIDANTA which means formation of extra teeth). The symptoms of decrease of ASTHI dhatu are described in Ashtanghrudaya as In brief the symptoms include ASTHITODA which means Inflammation of bones and joints like arthritis. and SADANA which means generalized weakness Sushrut samhita also mentions further symptoms in relation to descrease of Adthi Dhatu, they are Falling of teeth, Weakness, Pathological fractures Disorders like Rickets,Thinning of bones like in osteoporosis & Osteomyelitis MAJJA dhatu is defined as any matter completely covered by Asthi. So it can be co-related to bone marrow, brain spinal cord and the entire neurogenic system. MAJJA dhatu does not produce any accessory tissue, however,Sharangdhara samhita considers KESHA OR HAIR to be an Upadhatu of Majja but KESHA is considered as MALA or waste product of ASTHI DHATU by Vaghatt. Majja’s waste products are AKSHI VIT TWAK SNEHA which can be co-related to the lachrymal secretions such as those of the eyes and skin. MAJJA has a predominance of KAPHA Dosha. MAJJA has a predominance of the element Aapah followed by Prithvi. MAJJA’s main function is described by Acharya Vagbhat in Ashtanghruday as POORAN which means TO FILL. Majja is located within the bones or is completely surrounded by bones Its primary purpose is ASTHIPOORANA or “bone filling”. The pathology of MAJJA dhatu can be understood through the symptoms when its proportions increase or decrease in the body. The symptoms of Increase of MAJJA dhatu are described in Ashtanghrudaya as In brief the symptoms include Feeling of heaviness in eyes, Feeling of heaviness of body & Clubbing of fingers The symptoms of decrease of MAJJA dhatu are described in Ashtanghrudaya as In brief the symptoms include Disorders like Osteoporosis, Vertigo and Blurring of vision. Shukra, considered as the final dhatu, is associated with reproduction. On a broader scale it can be correlated to the male and female sexual fluids, however on a deep scan, the process of reproduction also occurs within each entity, as each cell in the body reproduces, hence Shukra dhatu can also be correlated to repair enzymes or any entity that acts as the main regulator for regeneration. SHUKRA dhatu does not produce any accessory tissue. Shukra dhatu does not produce any waste products either, however, Acharya Vagbhat considers OJAS, the supreme refinement of all Dhatus as a waste product or MALA of Shukra. SHUKRA has a predominance of KAPHA Dosha. SHUKRA has a predominance of the element Aapah followed by Prithvi. SHUKRA’s main function is described by Acharya Vagbhat in Ashtanghrudaya as GARBHOTPADAN which means to Reproduce or Regenerate. The pathology of SHUKRA dhatu can be understood through the symptoms when its proportions increase or decrease in the body. The symptoms of Increase of SHUKRA dhatu are described in Ashtanghrudaya as In brief the symptoms include Increase of sexual desires. However it’s interesting to note that Acharya Vagbhat uses the word STREE which means “woman”, so the verse is meant for men. The second symptom includes SHUKRA-ASHMARI or Seminal calculus, again a symptom associated with men. The symptoms of decrease of SHUKRA dhatu are described in SUSHRUT SAMHITA as In brief the symptoms include Loss of libido, Sexual incompetence, Inferiority complex Pallor, Generalised weakness, Negative thoughts, Slowing down of metabolic fire & activities, Getting tired very easily, Loss of confidence, Impotence, Erectile dysfunction, Lack of orgasms Difficulty in ejaculation of semen & Ejaculating low quantity of semen. OJAS is called the “Mahadhatu”, which means Superior dhatu. Ojas is considered as the supreme refinement of all Dhatus It is produced only when all Dhatus are healthy & functional Books on Yogic lineage divide Ojas into 2 types SOMAATMAK Ojas which is considered to be located close to the Pineal body or the BRAHMARANDHRA. This location is also considered to be the third eye of Lord Shiva and can be hypothetically traced to a point between the eyebrows. AGNYAATMAK OJAS; This is said located in the heart. This is fatty in nature. The characteristics of Ojas are described as Ojas is said to be SHEET VIRYA or Cool in nature The color of Ojas is said to be White Its properties are considered to be similar to Kapha Dosha Ojas protects all Dhatus in the body. With the knowledge of the Dhatus themselves, one can understand the process by which they are created. All matter in the body exists because of the consumption of food. A person who is malnourished loses weight; the matter that was once part of his or her body is gone. The seven dhatus are tissues within the body that are a result of the transformation of food. Ultimately, food is composed of a combination of Space, Air, Fire, Water, and Earth or the PANCHAMAHABHUTAS which also constitute the 3 DOSHAS In turn, one of the three Doshas is associated with each Dhatu. Ayurveda views such a chain effect as the pathway by which the body functions. I hope this video was informative and made the subject clear. Comments and feedback are highly appreciated and you can leave them by visiting the NLAM website at or likewise by writing to me at Thank you for watching. [SUBTITLES CREDIT:NLAM]

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